Philippine Native Chicken House

November 25, 2018 6:40 am by zionstar
Existing ranging house for their current native chicken flocks
Native poultry farming is a lucrative venture with ofws
Philippine Native Chicken House
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The revolutionary Malolos Republic of 1899 designated the Spanish language for official use in its constitution, drawn up during the Constitutional Convention in Malolos, Bulacan.[4][6][39] During this period, the nascent republic published a number of laws, acts, decrees, and other official issuances. These were published variously in the Spanish, English, and Tagalog languages, with the Spanish language predominating.[40] Spanish was also designated the official language of the Cantonal Republic of Negros of 1898 and the Republic of Zamboanga of 1899.[5]

Filipino nationalism and 19th century revolutionary governments[edit]

A woman selling puto bumbong at the Nagcarlan Public Market in Laguna province.

While many Spanish words have entered Tagalog, Cebuano, Waray-Waray, and other Philippine languages, many of the words have seen a shift in meaning and even construction from the original Spanish. That has resulted in false friends, similar words in both languages but with a different meaning. A sample is shown below:

During the Spanish occupation, which yielded Western influences, Filipinos ate with the paired utensils of spoon and fork. The knife was not used as in other countries, because Spain prohibited them to have knives. Filipinos use the side of the spoon, to “cut” the food. [51]

Several gins, both local varieties like Ginebra San Miguel (as well as GSM Blue and GSM Premium Gin) and imported brands like Gilbey’s, are commonly found. Some people refer to gin by the shape of the bottle: bilog for a circular bottle and kwatro kantos (literally meaning four corners) for a square or rectangular bottle. Gin is sometimes combined with other ingredients to come up with variations.

Although the English language had begun to be heavily promoted and used as the medium of education and government proceedings, the majority of literature produced by indigenous Filipinos during this period was in Spanish.[22] Among the great Filipino literary writers of the period were Fernando M.a Guerrero, Rafael Palma, Cecilio Apóstol, Jesús Balmori, Manuel Bernabé, Trinidad Pardo de Tavera and Teodoro M. Kalaw.[48] This explosion of Spanish language in Philippine literature occurred because the middle and upper class Filipinos were educated in Spanish and Spanish language as a subject was offered in public schools. In 1936, Philippine sound films in Spanish began to be produced.[49] Filipinos experienced a partial freedom of expression, since the American authorities weren’t too receptive to Filipino writers and intellectuals during most of the colonial period. As a result, Spanish had become the most important language in the country.[3]

Puto is another well-known example of sweet steamed rice cakes prepared in many different sizes and colors. Sapin-sapin (sapin means layer) are three-layered, tri-colored sweets made with rice flour, purple yam, and coconut milk characterized by its gelatinous appearance. Palitaw are rice patties that are covered with sesame seeds, sugar, and coconut; pisti-pisti which are cassava patties coated with cheese or coconut; and tibok-tibok is based on carabao milk as a de leche (similar to maja blanca). As a snack, binatog is created with corn kernels with shredded coconut. Packaged snacks wrapped in banana or palm leaves then steamed, suman are made from sticky rice. For cold desserts there is halo-halo which can be described as a dessert made with shaved ice, milk, and sugar with additional ingredients like coconut, halaya (mashed purple yam), “leche flan” or caramel custard, plantains, jackfruit, red beans, tapioca and pinipig being typical.

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Its a fair question: just what, in the 21st century, is a tie for? Beyond the demands of tradition and convention, a tie doesnt keep your neck warm and outside of the workplac…e, and even then its not clear… (MORE)

During the early part of the U.S. administration of the Philippine Islands, Spanish was widely spoken and relatively well maintained throughout the American colonial period.[3][6][7] Even so, Spanish was a language that bound leading men in the Philippines like Trinidad Hermenegildo Pardo de Tavera y Gorricho to President Sergio Osmeña and his successor, President Manuel Roxas. As a senator, Manuel L. Quezon (later President), delivered a speech in the 1920s entitled “Message to My People” in English and in Spanish.[8]

An icebox cake version of crema de fruta made with cream, graham crackers, condensed milk, and ripe mangoes.

Dishes range from the very simple, like a meal of fried salted fish and rice, to fish curry, chicken curry, complex paellas and cozidos created for fiestas of Iberian origin. Popular dishes include: lechón[2] (whole roasted pig), longganisa (Philippine sausage), tapa (cured beef), torta (omelette), adobo (chicken or pork braised in garlic, vinegar, oil and soy sauce, or cooked until dry), dinuguan (pork blood stew), kaldereta (meat in tomato sauce stew), mechado (larded beef in soy and tomato sauce), puchero (beef in bananas and tomato sauce), afritada (chicken or pork simmered in tomato sauce with vegetables), kare-kare (oxtail and vegetables cooked in peanut sauce), pinakbet (kabocha squash, eggplant, beans, okra, and tomato stew flavored with shrimp paste), crispy pata (deep-fried pig’s leg), hamonado (pork sweetened in pineapple sauce), sinigang (meat or seafood in sour broth), pancit (noodles), and lumpia (fresh or fried spring rolls). Various food scholars have noted that Filipino cuisine is multi-faceted and is the most representative in the culinary world for food where ‘East meets West’.[3]

Another rice-based dish is arroz a la valenciana,[29] a Spanish paella named after the Spanish region Valencia that has been incorporated into the local cuisine. Bringhe is a local rice dish with some similarities to paella but using glutinous rice, coconut milk, and turmeric. Kiampong a type of fried rice topped with pork pieces, chives and peanuts. It can be found in Chinese restaurants in Binondo and Manila. Camaron rebosado con jamon has been described as a classic dish in the Binondo district of Manila, the city’s Chinatown.[30]

For vegetarians, there is dinengdeng, a dish consisting of moringa leaves (malunggay) and slices of bittermelon. There is also pinakbet, stewed vegetables heavily flavored with bagoong. A type of seafood salad known as kinilaw is made up of raw seafood such as fish or shrimp cooked only by steeping in local vinegar, sometimes with coconut milk, onions, spices and other local ingredients. It is comparable to the Peruvian ceviche.

During her visit to the Philippines in July 2012, Sofia of Spain expressed her support for the Spanish language to be revived in Philippine schools.[73][74]

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Due to its mild, sub-tropical climate, Baguio, along with the outlying mountainous regions, is renowned for its produce. Temperate-zone fruits and vegetables (strawberries being a notable example) which would otherwise wilt in lower regions are grown there. It is also known for a snack called sundot-kulangot which literally means “poke the booger.” It’s actually a sticky kind of sweet made from milled glutinous rice flour mixed with molasses, and served inside pitogo shells, and with a stick to “poke” its sticky substance with.

Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898. It remained, along with English, as co-official language until 1987. It was at first removed in 1973 by a constitutional change, but after a few months it was re-designated an official language by presidential decree and remained official until 1987, with the present Constitution re-designating it instead as an “optional and voluntary language”.[1][2]

Spanish remained an official language of government until a new constitution ratified on January 17, 1973 designated English and Pilipino, spelled in that draft of the constitution with a “P” instead of the more modern “F”, as official languages. Shortly thereafter, Presidential Proclamation No. 155 dated March 15, 1973 ordered that the Spanish language should continue to be recognized as an official language so long as government documents in that language remained untranslated. A later constitution ratified in 1987 designated Filipino and English as official languages.[1] Also, under this Constitution, Spanish, together with Arabic, was designated an optional and voluntary language.[2]

Bicol is noted for its gastronomic appetite for the fiery or chili-hot dishes.[17] Perhaps the most well-known Bicolano dish is the very spicy Bicol Express. The region is also the well-known home of natong also known as laing or pinangat (a pork or fish stew in taro leaves).

Beer or serbesa (from the Spanish “cerveza”) is the most widely available alcoholic drink in the Philippines. San Miguel Pale Pilsen is the most popular and widely sold brand. Together with associated San Miguel beer brands such as San Mig Light and Gold Eagle Beer the company holds an aggregate market share of 92.7%.[50] Beer na Beer produced by local conglomerate Asia Brewery is another widely sold pale Pilsner style beer. Asia Brewery also produces under license and distributes a number of other mass market beers such as Colt 45, Asahi Super Dry, Heineken and Tiger Beer. Other beer labels include Red Horse Beer, Lone Star, Lone Star Light, Lone Star Ultra, Carlsberg, Coors Light, San Miguel Superdry, San Mig Strong Ice, and just recently, Manila Beer. Echoing trends in international markets, bars in urban areas have also begun to serve locally produced and imported craft beers in a variety of styles.

Filipino cuisine has a variety of native ingredients used. The biota that developed yielded a particular landscape and in turn gave the place local ingredients that enhanced flavors to the dishes. Kalamansi is the more known of those ingredients, it is a fruit that belongs to the genus citrus. It is mostly used due to the sourness it gives to a dish.[39] Another is the Tabon-tabon, a tropical fruit which were used by pre-colonial Filipinos as anti-bacterial ingredient especially in Kinilaw dishes.[40] The country also cultivates different type of nuts and one of them is the Pili nut, which the Philippines is the only known edible exporter of. It is usually made as a merienda or is incorporated in other desserts to enhance the flavor due to the milky texture it gives off as it melts in the mouth.[41]

The destruction of Intramuros in May 1945 after the Battle of Manila.

Tultul, a type of rock salt is another ingredient made only in Guimaras whom most use it to sprinkle on cooked rice to serve as a viand. The salt is an assortment of reeds, twigs and small pieces of bamboo carried to the shore by the sea tide where they have been soaked in seawater for some time and is then burned in large quantities while continually being doused with salt water on a daily basis. The ashes then is strained continuously by kaings and are then cooked in pans.[42]

Well-known dishes from the region include Satti (satay) and ginataang manok (chicken cooked in spiced coconut milk). Certain parts of Mindanao are predominantly Muslim, where pork is rarely consumed.

In Visayas, another souring agent in dishes in the form of Batuan (Garcinia binucao) is used. It is a fruit that is greenish, yellowish, somewhat rounded, and four centimeters or more in diameter. They have a firm outer covering and contain a very acid pulp and several seeds.[43]

In the Eighth Annual Report by the Director of Education, David P. Barrows, dated August 1, 1908, the following observations were made about the use and extension of the Spanish language in the Philippines:[6][46]

Meat staples include chicken, pork, beef, and fish. Seafood is popular as a result of the bodies of water surrounding the archipelago. Popular catches include tilapia, catfish (hito), milkfish (bangus), grouper (lapu-lapu), shrimp (hipon), prawns (sugpo), mackerel (galunggong, hasa-hasa), swordfish (isdang-ispada), oysters (talaba), mussels (tahong), clams (halaan and tulya), large and small crabs (alimango and alimasag respectively), game fish, sablefish, tuna, cod (bakalaw), blue marlin, and squid/cuttlefish (both called pusit). Also popular are seaweeds (damong dagat), abalone, and eel (igat).

In addition to the Availability of the 24/7 burgers stands such as Burger Machine (nicknamed “the burger that never sleeps”), Angel’s Burger and Minute Burger across the Country.

A poster advertising the Jones Law of 1916 in Spanish, The Glorious Jones Law

Filipino cuisine (Filipino: Lutuing Pilipino/Pagkaing Pilipino) is composed of the cuisines of 144 distinct ethno-linguistic groups found throughout the Philippine archipelago. However, a majority of mainstream Filipino dishes that compose Filipino cuisine are from the cuisines of the Ilocano, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Tagalog, Bicolano, Visayan (Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), Chavacano and Maranao ethno-linguistic groups. The style of cooking and the food associated with it have evolved over many centuries from their Austronesian origins (shared with Malaysian and Indonesian cuisines) to a mixed cuisine of Indian, Chinese, Spanish and American influences, in line with the major waves of influence that had enriched the cultures of the archipelago, as well as others adapted to indigenous ingredients and the local palate.[1]

A variety of fruits and vegetables is often used in cooking. Plantains (also called saba in Filipino), kalamansi, guavas (bayabas), mangoes, papayas, and pineapples lend a distinctly tropical flair in many dishes, but mainstay green leafy vegetables like water spinach (kangkong), Chinese cabbage (petsay), Napa cabbage (petsay wombok), cabbage (repolyo) and other vegetables like eggplants (talong) and yard-long beans (sitaw) are just as commonly used. Coconuts are ubiquitous. Coconut meat is often used in desserts, coconut milk (kakang gata) in sauces, and coconut oil for frying. Abundant harvests of root crops like potatoes, carrots, taro (gabi), cassava (kamoteng kahoy), purple yam (ube), and sweet potato (kamote) make them readily available. The combination of tomatoes (kamatis), garlic (bawang), and onions (sibuyas) is found in many dishes.

Okoy, also spelled as ukoy, is another batter-covered, deep-fried street food in the Philippines. Along with the batter, it normally includes bean sprouts, shredded pumpkin and very small shrimps, shells and all. It is commonly dipped in a combination of vinegar and chilli.

There are a wide variety of alcoholic drinks in the Philippines manufactured by local breweries and distilleries.

Tinola, a chicken soup notable as the dish mentioned in José Rizal’s novel Noli Me Tángere.

Spanish was the language of government, education and trade throughout the three centuries of Spanish rule and continued to serve as a lingua franca until the first half of the 20th century.[3] Spanish was the official language of the Malolos Republic, “for the time being”, according to the Malolos Constitution of 1899.[4] Spanish was also the official language of the Cantonal Republic of Negros of 1898 and the Republic of Zamboanga of 1899.[5]

Spanish is everywhere the language of business and social intercourse…In order for anyone to obtain prompt service from anyone, Spanish turns out to be more useful than English…And outside of Manila it is almost indispensable. The Americans who travel around all the islands customarily use it.

In 1863, the Spanish language was taught freely when a primary public school system was set up for the entire population. The Spanish-speaking Ilustrados (The Enlightened Ones), which included the Insulares, the Indios, the Mestizos, the Tornatrás, etc., were the educated elite who promoted and propagated nationalism and a modern Filipino consciousness. The Ilustrados and later writers formed the basis of Philippine Classical Literature which developed in the 19th century.

There are thousands of Spanish loanwords in 170 native Philippine languages, and Spanish orthography has influenced the spelling system used for writing most of these languages.[9]

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In 1863, Queen Isabel II of Spain decreed the establishment of a public school system, following the requests of the Spanish authorities in the islands, who saw the need of teaching Spanish to the wider population. The primary instruction and the teaching of the Spanish language was compulsory. The Educational Decree provided for the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and girls in each town and governed by the municipal government. A Normal School for male teachers was established and was supervised by the Jesuits.[28][29] In 1866, the total population of the Philippines was only 4,411,261. The total public schools was 841 for boys and 833 for girls and the total number of children attending these schools was 135,098 boys and 95,260 girls. In 1892, the number of schools had increased to 2,137, 1,087 of which were for boys and 1,050 for girls.[30] This measure was at the vanguard of contemporary Asian countries, and led to an important class of educated natives which sometimes followed their studies abroad, like national hero José Rizal, who studied in Europe. This class of writers, poets and intellectuals is often referred to as Ilustrados. Ironically, it was during the initial years of American occupation in the early 20th century, that Spanish literature and press flourished. This was the result both of a majority of Spanish-speaking population, as well as the partial freedom of the press which the American rulers allowed.

Categories: Spanish PhilippinesLanguages of the PhilippinesSpanish dialectsSpanish East IndiesSpanish in AsiaPhilippines–Spain relations

The Spanish language flourished in the first two decades of the 20th century due to the partial freedom of the press and as an act of defiance against the new rulers. Spanish declined due to the imposition of English as the official language and medium of instruction in schools and universities.[50][51] The American administration increasingly forced editorials and newspapers to switch to English, leaving Spanish in a marginal position, so that Enrique Zóbel de Ayala founded the Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española and the Premio Zóbel in 1924 to help maintain and develop the use of Spanish among the Filipino people.

Nowadays, the use of hands during eating, known as “kamayan” (using the washed left hand for picking the centralized food and the right hand for bringing food to the mouth), has become a trend. Kamayan generally means “eating with your hands”, which was how Filipinos ate before the colonial era. It is further becoming more popular due to the incorporation of the “boodle fight” concept, a style of dining popularized by the Philippine Army, which utilizes banana leaves spread out on the table as the main serving platter, upon which is laid out portions of rice and a variety of Filipino viand for friendly, filial or communal feasting. The use of spoons and forks, however, is still the norm.

For a softer treat there is mamon a chiffon-type cake sprinkled with sugar, its name derived from a slang Spanish term for breast. There’s also crema de fruta, which is an elaborate sponge cake topped in succeeding layers of cream, custard, candied fruit, and gelatine. Similar to a sponge cake is mamoncillo which generally refers to slices taken from a large mamon cake, but it is unrelated to the fruit of the same name. Sandwich pastries like inipit are made with two thin layers of chiffon sandwiching a filling of custard that is topped with butter and sugar. Another mamon variant is mamon tostada, basically mamoncillo toasted to a crunchy texture.

The presidential decision had immediate results. The Under-Secretary of the Department of Education, Vilma L. Labrador, circulated a Memorandum (17/XII/2007), on the “Restoration of the Spanish language in Philippine Education”. In it, the Department mandates secondary schools to offer basic and advanced Spanish.

Rendang, is an often spicy beef curry whose origins derive from the Minangkabau people of Sumatra; biryani and kiyoning (pilaf) are dishes originally from the Middle East, that were given a Mindanaoan touch and served on special occasions.

Spanish-language media was present in the 2000s with one Spanish newspaper, E-Dyario, the first Spanish digital newspaper published in the Philippines, and Filipinas, Ahora Mismo was a nationally syndicated, 60-minute, cultural radio magazine program in the Philippines broadcast daily in Spanish for two years in the 2000s. Since the emergence of social media, Spanish speaking Filipinos have tended to use these more modern forms to continue publishing in Spanish language.

Statue of Miguel López de Legazpi just outside Fort San Pedro, Cebu City

The cuisine of the Tagalog people varies by province. Bulacan is popular for chicharon (pork rinds) and steamed rice and tuber cakes like puto. It is a center for panghimagas or desserts, like brown rice cake or kutsinta, sapin-sapin, suman, cassava cake, halaya ube and the king of sweets, in San Miguel, Bulacan, the famous carabao milk candy pastillas de leche, with its pabalat wrapper.[16] Cainta, in Rizal province east of Manila, is known for its Filipino rice cakes and puddings. These are usually topped with latik, a mixture of coconut milk and brown sugar, reduced to a dry crumbly texture. A more modern, and time saving alternative to latik are coconut flakes toasted in a frying pan. Antipolo City, straddled mid-level in the mountainous regions of the Philippine Sierra Madre, is a town known for its suman and cashew products. Laguna is known for buko pie (coconut pie) and panutsa (peanut brittle). Batangas is home to Taal Lake, a body of water that surrounds Taal Volcano. The lake is home to 75 species of freshwater fish. Among these, the maliputo and tawilis are two not commonly found elsewhere. These fish are delicious native delicacies. Batangas is also known for its special coffee, kapeng barako.

Bacolod City is the capital of Negros Occidental. There are a plethora of restaurants in Bacolod that serve delicious local dishes which visitors shouldn’t miss when they travel in the city.[18] It is known for “inasal” which literally translates to “cooked over fire”. The “chicken inasal” is a local version of chicken barbecue. It is cooked with red achuete or annatto seeds giving it a reddish color, and brushed with oil and cooked over the fire. The city is also famous for various delicacies such as piaya, napoleones and pinasugbo (deep-fried and caramelled banana sprinkled with sesame seeds).

Isabela is known for Pancit Cabagan of Cabagan, Inatata & Binallay of Ilagan City are rice cakes prepared year-round in the city and both famous delicacies specially during the lenten season. Cagayan for its famous Carabao Milk Candy in the town Alcala and Tuguegarao City for Pancit Batil Patung and Buko Roll.

Cebu is known for its lechón variant. Lechon prepared “Cebu style” is characterized by a crisp outer skin and a moist juicy meat with a unique taste given by a blend of spices. Cebu is also known for sweets like dried mangoes and caramel tarts.

Pyanggang is a Tausug dish made from barbecued chicken marinaded in spices, and served with coconut milk infused with toasted coconut meat.

The vice president becomes the new President if the President vacates his office for any reason, including death, resignation, or forced removal via the impeachment process.

Before the 19th century, Philippine revolts were small-scale and did not extend beyond linguistic boundaries. Thus, they were easily neutralized by Spanish forces.[31] With the small period of the spread of Spanish through a free public school system (1863) and the rise of an educated class, nationalists from different parts of the archipelago were able to communicate in a common language. José Rizal’s novels, Graciano López Jaena’s satirical articles, Marcelo H. del Pilar’s anti-clerical manifestos, the bi-weekly La Solidaridad which was published in Spain, and other materials in awakening nationalism were written in Spanish. The Philippine Revolution fought for reforms and later for independence from Spain. However, it did not oppose Spain’s cultural legacy in the islands or the Spanish language.[32][33][34] Even Graciano López Jaena’s La Solidaridad article in 1889 praised the young women of Malolos who petitioned to Governor-General Valeriano Weyler to open a night school to teach the Spanish language.[35] In fact, the Malolos Congress of 1899 chose Spanish as the official language. According to Horacio de la Costa, nationalism would not have been possible without Spanish.[31] by then increasingly aware of nationalistic ideas and independence movements in other countries.

Iloilo is home of the Batchoy, derived from “Ba-chui” meaning pieces of meat in Hokkien Chinese. The authentic Batchoy contains fresh egg noodles called miki, buto-buto broth slow-cooked for hours, and beef, pork and bulalo mixed with the local guinamos (shrimp paste). Toppings include generous amounts of fried garlic, crushed chicharon, scallions, slices of pork intestines and liver.[22] Another type of pancit which is found in the said province is Pancit molo, an adaptation of wonton soup and is a specialty of the town of Molo, a well-known district in Iloilo. Unlike other pancit, Pancit molo is not dry but soupy and it does not make use of long, thin noodles but instead wonton wrappers made from rice flour.[23] Iloilo, is also famous for its two kadios or pigeon pea-based soups. The first is KBL or “Kadios Baboy Langka”. As the name implies, the three main ingredients of this dish are kadyos, baboy (pork), and langka (unripe jackfruit is used here).[24] Another one is KMU or “Kadios Manok Ubad”. This dish is composed mainly of kadyos, manok (preferably free range chicken called Bisaya nga Manok in Iloilo), and ubad(thinly cut white core of the banana stalk/trunk).[25] Both of these dishes utilize another Ilonggo ingredient as a souring agent. This ingredient is batwan or Garcinia binucao,[26] a fruit closely related to mangosteen, which is very popular in Western Visayas and neighbouring Negros Island, but is generally unknown to other parts of the Philippines.[27]

The town of Calasiao in Pangasinan is known for its puto, a type of steamed rice cake.

In crispy pata, pork knuckles (the pata) are marinated in garlic-flavored vinegar then deep fried until crisp and golden brown, with other parts of the pork leg prepared in the same way. Lechon manok is the Filipino take on rotisserie chicken. Available in many hole-in-the-wall stands or restaurant chains (e.g. Andok’s, Baliwag, Toto’s, Sr. Pedro’s, G.S. Pagtakhan’s), it is typically a specially seasoned chicken roasted over a charcoal flame served with “sarsa” or lechon sauce made from mashed pork liver, starch, sugar, and spices.

On September 11, 2012, saying that there were 318 Spanish-trained basic education teachers in the Philippines, Philippine secretary of the Department of Education Armin Luistro announced an agreement with the Chilean government to train Filipino school teachers in Spanish. In exchange, the Philippines would help train Chilean teachers in English.[75]

Other chilled drinks include sago’t gulaman, a flavored ice drink of pre-Hispanic Malay origin (Malay: gula melaka) with sago and agar gelatin with banana extract sometimes added to the accompanying syrup; fresh buko or coconut juice, the water or juice straight out of a young coconut via an inserted straw, a less fresh variation of which is from bottled coconut juice, scraped coconut flesh, sugar, and water; and kalamansi juice, the juice of kalamansi or Philippine limes usually sweetened with honey, syrup or sugar.

A 1916 report by Henry Jones Ford to President Woodrow Wilson said[47]

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Taft, 1900–1903. Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers. ISBN 978-971-10-1166-6. ISBN 971-10-1166-2, ISBN 978-971-10-1166-6. Guerrero, León María (1987). “The First Filipino, a Biography of José Rizal”.

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). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-01184-6.. Quilis, Antonio; Casado-Fresnillo, Celia (2008). La lengua española en Filipinas: Historia, situación actual, el chabacano, antología de textos.

Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; Instituto de Lengua, Literatura y Antropología; Anejos de la Revista de Filología Española. ISBN 978-84-00-08635-0. Rappa, Antonio L.; Wee, Lionel (2006).

Language Policy and Modernity in Southeast Asia: Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand (illustrated ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-4510-3., ISBN 1-4020-4510-7, ISBN 978-1-4020-4510-3.

Rodriguez, Rufus Bautista (1997). “The 1899 ‘Malolos’ Constitution”. Constitutionalism in the Philippines: With Complete Texts of the 1987 Constitution and Other Previous Organic Acts and Constitutions.

Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 130. ISBN 978-971-23-2193-1., ISBN 971-23-2193-2, ISBN 978-971-23-2193-1. Rodríguez-Ponga, Rafael. “Pero ¿cuántos hablan español en Filipinas?/But how many speak Spanish in the Philippines?” [But how many speak Spanish in the Philippines?] (PDF) (in Spanish).

. Stevens, Joseph Earle (1898). “Yesterdays in the Philippines”. Scribner.. Woods, Damon L. (2005). The Philippines: A Global Studies Handbook (illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6., ISBN 1-85109-675-2, ISBN 978-1-85109-675-6.

Since the independence of the Philippines from Spain (1898), the dialect has lost most of its speakers and it might be now close to disappearing.[citation needed] Spanish was the language of government, education and trade throughout the three centuries (333 years) of the Philippines being part of the Spanish Empire and continued to serve as a lingua franca until the first half of the 20th century. In the last decades its use has declined.[76] New developments in the Philippines are slowly reversing this trend.

Further reading[edit] General Forbes, William Cameron (1945). “The Philippine Islands”. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.. Statistics Gómez Rivera, Guillermo. “Statistics: Spanish Language in the Philippines”.

Archived from the original on October 27, 2009. Gómez Rivera, Guillermo. “Estadística: El Idioma español en Filipinas” [Statistics: Spanish Language in the Philippines] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on July 14, 2010.

Language Situation Andrade Jr., Pío (2001). “Education and Spanish in the Philippines”. Madrid, Spain: Asociación Cultural Galeón de Manila (galeondemanila.org). Archived from the original on August 11, 2010.

Retrieved August 14, 2010. External link in |publisher= (help) Rodao, Florentino (1997). “Spanish language in the Philippines : 1900–1940”. Philippine studies. 12. Manila, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University Press.

45 (1): 94–107. ISSN 0031-7837. OCLC 612174151. Archived from the original on July 13, 2010. Gómez Rivera, Guillermo. “El Idioma español en Filipinas: Año 2005” [The Spanish Language in the Philippines: Year 2005] (in Spanish).

Archived from the original on July 14, 2010. External links[edit] The Teaching of Spanish in the Philippines, UNESCO, February 1968 List of Tagalog words of Spanish origin, self-published, tripod.com Semanario de Filipinas, Philippine Weekly news blog E-Dyario Filipinas, online newspaper Alas Filipinas, the first and only Spanish blog in the Philippines Revista Filipina, online magazine Cohen, Margot.

Filipinos Learning Not to Scorn Spanish. Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University. April 2010. Asociacion Cultural Galeon de Manila, Spanish-Philippine cultural research group based in Madrid (in Spanish and English).

Círculo Hispano-Filipino (in Spanish and English) Website of Kaibigan Kastila Spanish Made Easy and Practical For Filipinos Spanish Program for Cultural Cooperation Casino Español de Manila Casino Español de Cebú Instituto Cervantes de Manila Documentary “El Idioma Español en Filipinas” (Spanish) Spanish Chamber of Commerce in the Philippines

Word Language Meaning in the Philippines Original Spanish word Spanish meaning asár Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as asá meaning roast or to roast) to annoy asar roast astá Tagalog, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon (until), Chavacano (hasta meaning until or til then) rude movements hasta (in Arabic: Hatta) Influences from Latin ad ista (“to this”) until bale Tagalog, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (spelled as Vale for nice, beautiful) well and worth, ie/’that is to say’/namely, wages, advance pay vale ok! and voucher or promissory note balón Tagalog, Kapampangan, Visayan, Chavacano well/balloon balón ball banda Tagalog, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano within proximity of and band banda band, side baráto Tagalog, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bikolano, Kapampangan cheap barato cheap, low prices barkada Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon group of friends barcada boatload basta Tagalog, Chavacano (also retains original meaning), Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan as long as/secret basta enough, stop! bida Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as Vida) lead actor or actress vida life bomba Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (also retains its meaning) erotica/nudity and bomb bomba bomb, and impressive or surprising (slang) used as an exclamation (“la bomba!”) chika Cebuano, Tagalog, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as Chica) gossip and girl chica girl, small entonses Tagalog, Chavacano (spelled as entonces for ‘then, afterwards’) elite class entonces then, afterwards hurado Tagalog, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano (spelled as jurado), Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Waray judge or juror (in contests only) jurado juror, jury impakto Tagalog, Kapampangan, Cebuano, Hiligaynon spirit causing temporary madness (originally elemental spirit from the earth) impacto impact, shock kasilyas Tagalog, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (spelled as “casillas”), Ilocano bathroom, toilet casilla square, cube, hut kerida Tagalog, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (spelled as Querido or Querida.

same meaning as beloved) mistress (only) querida dear (used for female loved ones including mothers, sisters, aunts, and friends) and mistress (when used as “la querida”) kontrabida Tagalog, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Chavacano (spelled as Contra Vida with the same meaning) villain contra vida against life konyo Tagalog, Chavacano (spelled as coño.

synonyms to cúlo. also retain its meaning same in spanish “curse word or to be specific ‘vagina’) rich or vain coño vagina (vulgar expletive) kubeta Tagalog, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as Cúbeta) toilet, outhouse cubeta bucket kumustá Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Cebuano hello or How are you? / How is ___? ¿Cómo está? How are you? / How is ___? (only) kuwarta Cebuano, Hiligayno money cuarta fourth, quarter (coin) labakara Tagalog, Ilokano, Bikol, Kapampangan, Cebuano, Waray washcloth lavacara washbasin lola Tagalog, Visayan, and other Philippine languages grandmother Lola derived from final syllable of abuela (grandmother) [See also ‘lolo’ from Abuelo] madre Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (also retain its meaning “mother”) nun (only) madre mother (parent) and nun maldito/maldita Cebuano, Tagalog, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Hiligaynon, Chavacano bad maldito/maldita bad, damned, cursed mamón Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (mamón, it means “cake”) fluffy bread mamón (de “mamar”), mamón (de “mamas”), mamón (type of Mexican bread) suckle (from mamar “to suckle”) mammary glands (as in the English word “mammaries”) Also papaya in the Caribbean maské, maskí Tagalog, Chavacano (spelled masquen or mas que), Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan even if por más que/ más que as much as; even if; even then;/more than mutsatsa Tagalog, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as Muchacha or Muchacho) maid (only) muchacha maid (Mexico and Spain) and girl onse Tagalog, Ilocano, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (spelled as ‘Once’) eleven, hustle once eleven padre Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Pangasinense, Kapampangan priest (only, inflexible) padre father (parent), priest palengke Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as palenque.

mostly used that word “tiange or mercado”) market palenque palisade pare Tagalog, Kapampangan friend (slang) Corruption of compadre, and not to be confused with pare, the polite imperative of stop. godfather of one’s child, friend parì Cebuano, Tagalog, Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Chavacano (Spelled as Parí “giving birth”) (spelled padi), Kapampangan priest padre father, priest pera Tagalog, Kapampangan money perra coin, penny peras Tagalog, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon pear pera pear pirmi Hiligaynon, Cebuano, Chavacano(spell it as “firmi”, while “Firme” is firm in English), Kapampangan steady, always firme firm, steady pitsó Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano (spelled as Pecho) chicken breast (only) pecho breast (in general including humans and other animals) puwerta Tagalog, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon (also pertahan), Chavacano (spelled as Puerta) door (also, in some instances, used to describe the orifice of the vaginal canal) puerta door regla Tagalog, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Chavacano menstruation regla rule/ruler/menstruation siguro Tagalog, Chavacano (seguro.

also retains its meaning), Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan maybe seguro secure, stable, sure silbí Tagalog, Cebuano, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as Servi) to serve sirve He/she/it serves siyempre Tagalog, Ilocano, Chavacano(spelled as siempre for “of course” and “always”), Cebuano, Hiligaynon of course siempre always sugál Tagalog, Cebuano,Hiligaynon, Ilocano, Pangasinense, Kapampangan gambling jugar to play, to gamble sugaról Cebuano, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon gambler jugador gambler and player suplado Tagalog, Cebuano, Pangasinense, Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Chavacano (spelled as suplado or suplada) snobbish, snooty, stubborn (child), brat soplado blown, inflated sustansiya Tagalog, Bikol, Cebuano, Chavacano (spelled as sustansia), Hiligaynon, Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Ilocano, Waray nutrient sustancia substance False cognates[edit]

Christmas Eve, known as Noche Buena, is the most important feast. During this evening, the star of the table is the Christmas ham and Edam cheese (queso de bola). Supermarkets are laden with these treats during the Christmas season and are popular giveaways by Filipino companies in addition to red wine, brandy, groceries, or pastries. Available mostly during the Christmas season and sold in front of churches along with bibingka, puto bumbong is a purple yam-flavored puto.

The 21st century has seen a revival of interest in the language, with the numbers of those studying it formally at college or taking private courses rising markedly in recent years.[61] Today, the Philippine constitution provides that Spanish shall be promoted on a voluntary and optional basis.[62] A great portion of the history of the Philippines is written in Spanish and, up until recently, many land titles, contracts, newspapers and literature were still written in Spanish.[63] Today, Spanish is being somewhat revived in the Philippines by groups rallying to make it a compulsory subject in school.[64]

The terms that can be used when it comes to flamingos, is flock, colony, regiment, flurry, stand, and flamboyance of flamingos.

The Filipino/Tagalog words for popular cooking methods and terms are listed below:

or wood (inihaw). Other preparations include escabeche (sweet and sour), relleno (deboned and stuffed), or “kinilaw” (similar to ceviche; marinated in vinegar or kalamansi). Fish can be preserved by being smoked (tinapa) or sun-dried (tuyo or daing).

As in most Asian countries, the staple food in the Philippines is rice.[8] It is most often steamed and always served with meat, fish and vegetable dishes. Leftover rice is often fried with garlic to make sinangag, which is usually served at breakfast together with a fried egg and cured meat or sausages. Rice is often enjoyed with the sauce or broth from the main dishes. In some regions, rice is mixed with salt, condensed milk, cocoa, or coffee. Rice flour is used in making sweets, cakes and other pastries. Sticky rice with cocoa, also called champorado is also a common dish served with tuyo or dried herring.

Long contact between Spanish and the local languages, Chinese dialects, and later Japanese produced a series of pidgins, known as Bamboo Spanish, and the Spanish-based creole Chavacano. At one point these were the language of a substantial proportion of the Philippine population.[24] Unsurprisingly, given that the Philippines was administrated for centuries from New Spain in present-day Mexico, Philippine Spanish is broadly similar to American Spanish, not only in vocabulary, but in pronunciation and grammar.[25]

According to the 1990 Philippine census, there were 2,660 native Spanish speakers in the Philippines.[10] In 2013 there were also 3,325 Spanish residents.[11] However, there are 439,000 Spanish speakers with native knowledge,[12] which accounts for just 0.5% of the population (92,337,852 at the 2010 census).[13] In 1998, there were 1.8 million Spanish speakers including those who spoke Spanish as a secondary language.[14]

The late 2010s saw the opening of teahouses in major cities, and with a glass of milk tea being more affordable than the usual cold designer coffee, it paved the way into making tea a well-known food trend. Among the top players in the Philippine teahouse scene are ShareTea, Happy Lemon, Chatime, Serenitea and Moonleaf Tea Shop.[48]

Ginanggang, a snack food made of grilled saba banana with margarine and sugar.

A traditional Filipino breakfast might include pandesal (small bread rolls), kesong puti (fresh, unripened, white Filipino cheese, traditionally made from carabao’s milk) champorado (chocolate rice porridge), sinangag (garlic fried rice) or sinaing, and meat—such as tapa, longganisa, tocino, karne norte (corned beef), or fish such as daing na bangus (salted and dried milkfish)—or itlog na pula (salted duck eggs). Coffee is also commonly served particularly kapeng barako, a variety of coffee produced in the mountains of Batangas noted for having a strong flavor.

Tsokolate is the Filipino take on hot chocolate. It is traditionally made with tablea, which are pure cacao beans that are dried, roasted, ground and then formed into tablets.[49]

1 Background 1.1 Overview 1.2 Official language 1.3 Influence 1.4 Demographics 2 History 2.1 Spanish colonial period 2.1.1 Schools 2.1.2 Filipino nationalism and 19th century revolutionary governments 2.

2 Philippine–American War 2.3 American colonial period 2.4 Decline of the Spanish language 2.5 21st-century developments 3 Current status 3.1 Media 4 Influence on the languages of the Philippines 4.1 Morphosemantic changes 4.

2 False cognates 5 List of Spanish words of Philippine origin 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Bibliography 9 Further reading 10 External links

Bistek Tagalog, strips of sirloin beef slowly cooked in soy sauce, calamansi juice, and onions.

I would assume it is a species trait Answer: In inventing languages for aliens in movies, writers often follow the language patterns in other Earth languages ( for example Kli…ngon is in the word and case format of Swahili and Spock talks in Vulcan wh (MORE)

Spanish was first introduced to the Philippines in 1565, when the conquistador, Miguel López de Legazpi, founded the first Spanish settlement on the island of Cebú.[15] The Philippines, ruled first from Mexico City and later from Madrid, was a Spanish territory for 333 years (1565–1898).[16] Schooling was a priority, however. The Augustinians opened a school immediately upon arriving in Cebú in 1565; the Franciscans followed suit when they arrived in 1577, as did the Dominicans when they arrived in 1587. Besides religious instruction, these schools taught how to read and write and imparted industrial and agricultural techniques.[17]

In the early 17th century, a Tagalog-Chinese printer, Tomás Pinpin, set out to write a book in romanized phonetic script to teach the Tagalogs how to learn Castilian. His book, published by the Dominican press where he worked, appeared in 1610, the same year as Blancas’s Arte. Unlike the missionary’s grammar (which Pinpin had set in type), the Tagalog native’s book dealt with the language of the dominant rather than the subordinate other. Pinpin’s book was the first such work ever written and published by a Philippine native. As such, it is richly instructive for what it tells us about the interests that animated Tagalog translation and, by implication, Tagalog conversion in the early colonial period.

Shakoy (also known as lubid-lubid), a doughnut variant from the Visayas.

Today, Filipino cuisine continues to evolve as new techniques and styles of cooking, and ingredients find their way into the country. Traditional dishes both simple and elaborate, indigenous and foreign-influenced, are seen as are more current popular international viands and fast food fare. However, the Filipino diet is higher in total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol than other Asian diets.[6]

For most of the less educated population, Spanish is acquired through Hispanic music, or for some, especially children, by watching Dora the Explorer in Nickelodeon. For the educated population, Spanish is further enriched through watching Telenovelas from the internet or watching the cable channel of Televisión Española.[79] That results in the lack of general characteristics that describe its phonological system.[clarify]

It was the language of the Philippine Revolution and the country’s first official language, as proclaimed in the Malolos Constitution of the First Philippine Republic in 1899. It was the language of commerce, law, politics and the arts during the colonial period and well into the 20th century. It was the main language of many classical writers and Ilustrados such as Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Antonio Luna and Marcelo del Pilar, to name but a few. It is regulated by the Academia Filipina de la Lengua Española, the main Spanish-language regulating body in the Philippines, and a member of the Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española, the entity which regulates the Spanish language worldwide.

Better school conditions in towns and cities led to more effective instruction in the Spanish language and in other subjects. Between 1600 and 1865, a number of colleges and universities were established, which graduated many important colonial officials and church prelates, bishops, and archbishops—several of whom served the churches in Hispanic America. The increased level of education eventually led to the rise of the Ilustrados. In 1846, French traveler Jean Baptiste Mallat was surprised at how advanced Philippine schools were.[17] In 1865, the government inaugurated the Escuela Normal (Normal School, later Philippine Normal University), an institute to train future primary school teachers. At the same time, primary schooling was made compulsory for all children. In 1869, a new Spanish constitution brought to the Philippines universal suffrage and a free press.[20] El Boletín de Cebú, the first Spanish newspaper in Cebu City, was published in 1886.[21]

There’s a distinct range of street foods available in the Philippines. Some of these are skewered on sticks in the manner of a kebab. One such example is banana-cue which is a whole banana or plantain skewered on a short thin bamboo stick, rolled in brown sugar, and pan-fried. Kamote-cue is a peeled sweet potato skewered on a stick, covered in brown sugar and then pan-fried. Fish balls or squid balls including Calamares are also pan-fried, then skewered on bamboo sticks and given to the customer, who then has a choice of dipping in a sweet or savory sauce. These are commonly sold frozen in markets and peddled by street vendors.

Examples of grilled foods include: isaw, or chicken or pig intestines skewered and then grilled; Inihaw na tenga, pig ears that have been skewered and then grilled; pork barbecue, skewered pork marinated in a sweet soy-garlic blend and then grilled; betamax, salted solidified pork or chicken blood which is then skewered and lightly grilled; adidas which is grilled or sautéed chicken feet. There is also sisig[13], a popular pulutan made from the pig’s cheek skin, ears and liver that is initially boiled, then charcoal grilled and afterwards minced and cooked with chopped onions, chillies, and spices.

Filipinos also eat tocino and longganisa. Tocino is a sweetened cured meat made with either chicken or pork and is marinated and cured for a number of days before being fried. Longganisa is a sweet or spicy sausage, typically made from pork though other meats can also be used, and are often colored red traditionally through the use of the anatto seed but also artificial food coloring.

Batchoy, or La Paz Batchoy, a Filipino noodle dish native to La Paz district in Iloilo.

Stuffed pastries that reflect both Western and Eastern influence are common. One can find empanadas, a turnover-type pastry filled with a savory-sweet meat filling. Typically filled with ground meat and raisins, it can be deep fried or baked. Siopao is the local version of Chinese baozi. Buchi is another snack that is likely of Chinese origin. Bite-sized, buchi is made of deep-fried dough balls (often from rice flour) filled with a sweet mung bean paste, and coated on the outside with sesame seeds; some variants also have ube as the filling. There are also many varieties of the mooncake-like hopia, which come in different shapes (from a flat, circular stuffed form, to cubes), and have different textures (predominantly using flaky pastry, but sometimes like the ones in mooncakes) and fillings.

Counterpoint is a feature in Filipino cuisine which normally comes in a pairing of something sweet with something salty, and results in surprisingly pleasing combinations. Examples include: champorado (a sweet cocoa rice porridge), being paired with tuyo (salted, sun-dried fish); dinuguan (a savory stew made of pig’s blood and innards), paired with puto (sweet, steamed rice cakes); unripe fruits such as green mangoes (which are only slightly sweet but very sour), are eaten dipped in salt or bagoong; the use of cheese (which is salty-sweet) in sweetcakes (such as bibingka and puto), as well as an ice cream flavoring.

Roxas City is another food destination in Western Visayas aside from Iloilo City and Kalibo. This coastal city that’s about two to three hours by bus from Iloilo City prides itself as the Seafood Capital of the Philippines due to its bountiful rivers, estuaries and seas. Numerous seafood dishes are served in the city’s Baybay area from mussels, oysters, scallops, prawns, seaweeds, clams, fishes and many more.

“Adobo/Inadobo” − cooked in vinegar, oil, garlic and soy sauce. “Babad/Binabad/Ibinabad” − to marinate. “Banli/Binanlian/Pabanli” − to blanch. “Bagoong/Binagoongan/ – sa Bagoong” − cooked with fermented fish/shrimp paste bagoong.

“Binalot” – literally “wrapped.” This generally refers to dishes wrapped in banana leaves, pandan leaves, or even aluminum foil. The wrapper is generally inedible (in contrast to lumpia — see below).

“Buro/Binuro” − fermented. “Daing/Dinaing/Padaing” − marinated with garlic, vinegar, and black peppers. Sometimes dried and usually fried before eating. “Guinataan/sa Gata” − cooked with coconut milk.

“Guisa/Guisado/Ginisa” or “Gisado” − sautéed with garlic, onions or tomatoes. “Halabos/Hinalabos” – mostly for shellfish. Steamed in their own juices and sometimes carbonated soda. “Hilaw/Sariwa” – unripe (for fruits and vegetables), raw (for meats).

Also used for uncooked food in general (as in lumpiang sariwa). “Hinurno” – baked in an oven or roasted. “Ihaw/Inihaw” − grilled over coals. “Kinilaw” or “Kilawin” − fish or seafood marinated in vinegar or calamansi juice along with garlic, onions, ginger, tomato, peppers.

“Lechon/Litson/Nilechon” − roasted on a spit. “Lumpia” – savory food wrapped with an edible wrapper. “Minatamis/Minatamisan” − sweetened. “Nilaga/Laga/Palaga” − boiled/braised. “Nilasing” − cooked with an alcoholic beverage like wine or beer.

“Pinakbet” − to cook with vegetables usually with sitaw (yardlong beans), calabaza, talong (eggplant), and ampalaya (bitter melon) among others and bagoong. “Paksiw/Pinaksiw” − cooked in vinegar. “Pangat/Pinangat” − boiled in salted water with fruit such as tomatoes or ripe mangoes.

“Palaman/Pinalaman/Pinalamanan” − “filled” as in siopao, though “palaman” also refers to the filling in a sandwich. “Pinakuluan” – boiled. “Prito/Pinirito” − fried or deep fried. From the Spanish frito.

“Relleno/Relyeno” – stuffed. “Sarza/Sarciado” – cooked with a thick sauce. “Sinangag” – garlic fried rice. “Sigang/Sinigang” − boiled in a sour broth usually with a tamarind base. Other common souring agents include guava, raw mangoes, calamansi also known as calamondin.

“Tapa/Tinapa” – dried and smoked. Tapa refers to meat treated in this manner, mostly marinated and then dried and fried afterwards. Tinapa meanwhile is almost exclusively associated with smoked fish.

“Tosta/Tinosta/Tostado” – toasted. “Torta/Tinorta/Patorta” – to cook with eggs in the manner of an omelette. “Turon/Turrones” – wrapped with an edible wrapper; dessert counterpart of lumpia.

Food is often served with various dipping sauces. Fried food is often dipped either in vinegar with onions, soy sauce with juice squeezed from Kalamansi (Philippine lime or calamansi). Patis (fish sauce) may be mixed with kalamansi as dipping sauce for most seafood or mixed with a stew called nilaga. Fish sauce, fish paste (bagoong), shrimp paste (bagoong alamang) and crushed ginger root (luya) are condiments that are often added to dishes during the cooking process or when served.

Although the Philippines were not as culturally hispanized as Hispanic America, the Spanish language was the official language used by the civil and judicial administration, and was spoken by the majority of the population and understood by just everyone, especially after the passing of the Education Decree of 1863. By the end of the 19th century, Spanish was a strong second language among the upper classes of Philippine society, having been learned in childhood either directly from parents and grandparents or through tutoring by a local priest.[26] By the time Spanish rule came to an end, Spanish was spoken as a second language by more than 60% of the population.[6]

José Rizal propagated Filipino consciousness and identity in Spanish. One material highly instrumental in developing nationalism was the novels entitled Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo which exposed the abuses of the colonial government and clergy composed of Peninsulares. The novels’ very own notoriety propelled its popularity even more among Filipinos. Reading it was forbidden because it exposed and parodied the Peninsulares in the Philippine Islands.

Of the adult population, including persons of mature years and social influence, the number speaking English is relatively small. This class speaks Spanish, and as it is the most prominent and important class of people in the Islands, Spanish continues to be the most important language spoken in political, journalistic and commercial circles.

Certain portmanteaus in Filipino have come into use to describe popular combinations of items in a Filipino breakfast. An example of such a combination order is kankamtuy: an order of kanin (rice), kamatis (tomatoes) and tuyo (dried fish). Another is tapsi: an order of tapa and sinangág or sinaing. Other examples include variations using a silog suffix, usually some kind of meat served with sinangág or sinaing, and itlog (egg). The three most commonly seen silogs are tapsilog (having tapa as the meat portion), tocilog (having tocino as the meat portion), and longsilog (having longganisa as the meat portion). Other silogs include hotsilog (with a hot dog), bangsilog (with bangus (milkfish)), dangsilog (with danggit (rabbitfish)), spamsilog (with spam), adosilog (with adobo), chosilog (with chorizo), chiksilog (with chicken), cornsilog (with corned beef), and litsilog (with lechon/litson). Pankaplog is slang for a breakfast consisting of pandesal, kape (coffee), and itlog (egg).[9] An establishment that specializes in such meals is called a tapsihan or tapsilugan.

List of Philippine desserts List of Philippine dishes List of Philippine restaurant chains Philippine condiments Filipino-American cuisine References[edit] Further reading[edit]

There are several rice porridges that are popular in the Philippines. One is arroz caldo which is a rice porridge cooked with chicken, ginger and sometimes saffron, garnished with spring onions (chives), toasted garlic, and coconut milk to make a type of gruel. Another variant is goto which is an arroz caldo made with ox tripe. There is also another much different rice porridge called champorado which is sweet and flavored with chocolate and often served at breakfast paired with tuyo or daing.

Trade and shared cultures with various neighboring kingdoms of Malacca and Srivijaya in Malaya, and Java meant shared if not adopted foods and cooking methods, which remain central to Filipino cuisine today. Some of these are the use of fish or shrimp-based ingredients such as bagoong (Malay: belacan) and patis and variants. The most known Philippine variant of the Malay ketupat, or rice packed in banana leaves, is the puso of Cebu (also called bugnoy in other parts of the Visayas), piyoso in Moro cultures (e.g. Meranao, Maguindanao, Iranun), and patupat in northern Luzon. Moro cuisine in particular is known for sambal, and the rendang dish, although is more popularly associated with Indonesian cuisine. A tamarind-based Malay dish called singgang is also analogous to the more widely-popular Filipino sinigang.

Smaller snacks such as mani (peanuts) are often sold steamed in the shell, salted, spiced or flavored with garlic by street vendors in the Philippines. Another snack is kropeck, which is fish crackers.

More common at celebrations than in everyday home meals, lumpiang sariwa, or fresh lumpia, is a fresh spring roll that consists of a soft crepe wrapped around a filling that can include strips of kamote (sweet potato), singkamas (jicama), bean sprouts, green beans, cabbage, carrots and meat (often pork). It can be served warm or cold and typically with a sweet peanut and garlic sauce. Ukoy is shredded papaya combined with small shrimp (and occasionally bean sprouts) and fried to make shrimp patties. It is often eaten with vinegar seasoned with garlic, salt and pepper. Both lumpiang sariwa and ukoy are often served together in Filipino parties. Lumpiang sariwa has Chinese origins, having been derived from popiah.[15]

Ensaladang Lato or “Seaweed Salad” (also known as Kinilaw na Guso in Cebuano), a Filipino salad made from the edible green algae Caulerpa lentillifera.

In a typical Filipino bakery, pandesal, monay and ensaymada are often sold. Pandesal comes from the Spanish pan de sal (literally, bread of salt), and is a ubiquitous breakfast fare, normally eaten with (and sometimes even dipped in) coffee. It typically takes the form of a bread roll, and is usually baked covered in bread crumbs. Contrary to what its name implies, pandesal is not particularly salty as very little salt is used in baking it. Monay is a firmer slightly denser heavier bread. Ensaymada, from the Spanish ensaimada, is a pastry made using butter and often topped with sugar and shredded cheese that is especially popular during Christmas. It is sometimes made with fillings such as ube (purple yam) and macapuno (a variety of coconut the meat of which is often cut into strings, sweetened, preserved, and served in desserts). Also commonly sold in Filipino bakeries is pan de coco, a sweet roll filled with shredded coconut mixed with molasses. Putok, which literally means “explode”, refers to a small, hard bread roll whose cratered surface is glazed with sugar. Kababayan is a small, sweet gong-shaped muffin that has a moist consistency. Spanish bread refers to a rolled pastry which looks like a croissant prior to being given a crescent shape, and has a filling consisting of sugar and butter.

As the Philippines is a tropical country, it should come as no surprise that there are many treats made from rice and coconuts. One often seen dessert is bibingka, a hot rice cake optionally topped with a pat of butter, slices of kesong puti (white cheese), itlog na maalat (salted duck eggs), and sometimes grated coconut. There are also glutinous rice sweets called biko made with sugar, butter, and coconut milk. In addition, there is a dessert known as bitsu-bitsu, also known as a Pinoy donut, made with fried rice flour which is then coated with Muscovado sugar syrup. There is also Karioka, made from glutinous rice flour, coconut, and coconut milk, fried and skewered and slathered with a brown sugar glaze. Another brown rice cake is kutsinta.

Filipinos have a number of options to take with kapé, which is the Filipino pronunciation of café (coffee): breads and pastries like pandesal, ensaymada (buttery brioche covered in grated cheese and sugar), hopia (pastries similar to mooncakes filled with mung bean paste) and empanada (savoury, meat-filled pasties). Also popular are kakanín, or traditional pastries made from sticky rice like kutsinta, sapin-sapin (multicoloured, layered pastry), palitaw, biko, suman, Bibingka, and pitsi-pitsî (served with desiccated coconut).

…as I traveled through the Philippine Islands, using ordinary transportation and mixing with all classes of people under all conditions. Although based on the school statistics it is said that more Filipinos speak English than any other language, no one can be in agreement with this declaration if they base their assessment on what they hear…

Among other street food are already mentioned pulutan like isaw, seasoned hog or chicken intestines skewered onto a stick and grilled; betamax, roasted dried chicken blood cut into and served as small cubes, from which it received its name due to its crude resemblance to a Betamax tape; Adidas, grilled chicken feet named after the popular shoe brand; and proven, the proventriculus of a chicken coated in cornstarch and deep-fried. Fries made from sweet potatoes have also been dubbed “Pinoy fries”.

During the pre-Hispanic era in the Philippines, the preferred Austronesian methods for food preparation were boiling, steaming and roasting. The ingredients for common dishes were obtained from locally raised livestock. These ranged from water buffalos/carabaos), chicken, and pigs to various kinds of fish and other seafood. In 3200 BCE, Austronesians from southern China (Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau) and Taiwan settled in the region that is now called the Philippines. They brought with them knowledge of rice cultivation and other farming practices which increased the number and variety of edible dish ingredients available for cooking.[4]

Spanish, of course, is the court and commercial language and, except among the uneducated native who have a lingua of their own or among the few members of the Anglo-Saxon colony, it has a monopoly everywhere. No one can really get on without it, and even the Chinese come in with their peculiar pidgin variety.[23]

Chavacano (also called Zamboangueño), is a Spanish-based creole language spoken mainly in the southern province of Zamboanga and, to a much lesser extent, in the province of Cavite in the northern region of Luzon.[81] Chavacano became the main language in the Zamboanga City and some parts of Zamboanga Peninsula, as a result of the migration into the area of a large number of workers, who came from different linguistic regions to build military and other Spanish establishments.

Overview Pronunciation stress Orthography Names History Old Middle Influences Grammar Determiners Nouns gender Pronouns personal object Adjectives Prepositions Verbs conjugation irregular verbs Dialects Peninsular Pan-American Standard Dialectology seseo yeísmo voseo leísmo loísmo Interlanguages Creoles Spanglish Portuñol Teaching Hispanism RAE Instituto Cervantes

Direct trade and cultural exchange with Hokkien China in the Philippines in the Song dynasty (960–1279 AD) with porcelain, ceramics, and silk being traded for spices and trepang in Luzon.[5] This early cultural contact with China introduced a number of staple food into Filipino cuisine, most notably toyo (soy sauce; Chinese: 豆油; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tāu-yu), tokwa; (tofu; Chinese: 豆干; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tāu-koaⁿ), toge (bean sprout; Chinese: 豆芽; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: tāu-koaⁿ), and patis (fish sauce), as well as the method of stir frying and making savory soup bases. Many of these food items and dishes retained their original Hokkien names, such as pancit (Chinese: 便ê食; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: piān-ê-si̍t)(Chinese: 扁食; pinyin: biǎn shí), and lumpia (Chinese: 潤餅; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: jūn-piáⁿ, lūn-piáⁿ).[5] The Chinese food introduced during this period were food of the workers and traders, which became a staple of the noodle shops (panciterias), and can be seen in dishes like arroz caldo (congee), sinangag (fried rice), chopsuey.

There are hard pastries like biskotso a crunchy, sweet, twice-baked bread. Another baked goody is sinipit which is a sweet pastry covered in a crunchy sugar glaze, made to resemble a length of rope. Similar to sinipit is a snack eaten on roadsides colloquially called shingaling. It is hollow but crunchy with a salty flavor.

There has been a resurgence of learning Spanish among Filipinos, for various reasons. Interest in the language and recuperation of it as part of their history, namely their written, cultural history, interest in their connection to the Spanish-speaking world, among others.

Through the trade with the Malay-Indonesian kingdoms, cuisine from as far away as India and Arabia further enriched the palettes of the local Austronesians. Particularly in the southern regions of Mindanao where there is more direct contact with cultures of Malaysia and Indonesia, popular dishes include kurmah, satti (local satay), and biryani. Indian influences can also be noted in rice-based delicacies such as bibingka (analogous to the Indonesian bingka), puto, and puto bumbong, where the latter two are plausibly derived from the south Indian puttu, which also has variants throughout Maritime Southeast Asia (e.g. kue putu, putu mangkok). The kare-kare, more popular in Luzon, on the other hand could trace its origins from the Seven Years’ War when the British occupied Manila for 2 years mostly with sepoys (Indian conscripts), who had to improvise Indian dishes given the lack of spices in the Philippines to make curry. This is said to explain the name and its supposed thick, yellow-to-orange annatto and peanut-based sauce, which alludes to a type of curry.

By law, each town had to build two schools, one for boys and the other for girls, to teach the Spanish language and the Christian catechism. There were never enough trained teachers, however, and several provincial schools were mere sheds open to the rain. This discouraged the attendance at school and illiteracy was high in the provinces until the 19th century, when public education was introduced. The conditions were better in larger towns. To qualify as an independent civil town, a barrio or group of barrios had to have a priest’s residence, a town hall, boys’ and girls’ schools; streets had to be straight and at right angles to one another so that the town could grow in size; the town had to be near a good water source and land for farming and grazing.[19]

Nata de coco is a chewy, translucent, jelly-like food product produced by the fermentation of coconut water[31] can be served with pandesal. Kesong puti is a soft white cheese made from carabao milk (although cow milk is also used in most commercial variants). Grated mature coconut (niyog), is normally served with sweet rice-based desserts.

The Philippines is a predominantly coffee-drinking nation. One of the most popular variants of coffee coming from the mountains of Batangas is known as kapeng barako. Another well-known variant of coffee is the civet coffee. It is called kape motit in the Cordilleras, kape alamid in Tagalog region, and kape musang in Mindanao. The Kalinga coffee known for its organic production is also rapidly gaining popularity. Highlands coffee, or Benguet coffee, is a blend of Robusta and Excelsa beans.[44]

Word Language Meaning in the Philiippines Similar Spanish word Spanish meaning alamín Tagalog to know; the root word ‘alám’ means ‘know’ – ultimately derived from Arabic. alamín village judge who decided on irrigation distribution or official who measured weights luto Tagalog, Cebuano, Waray v.

, to cook (Tagalog, Cebuano)cooked rice (Waray); adj. cooked luto mourning lupà Tagalog earth, soil lupa magnifying glass matá Tagalog, Hiligaynon, Cebuano, Waray eye mata ‘(He) kills.’, hassock, clamp, tuft piso Tagalog, Cebuano, Waray Philippine peso piso floor puto Tagalog, Visayan A rice cake/fudge puto Male prostitute (pejorative:homosexual) sabi Tagalog, Ilokano, Bikol, Kapampangan said sabes you know List of Spanish words of Philippine origin[edit] This article contains IPA phonetic symbols.

Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Savoury dishes often eaten during merienda include pancit canton (stir-fried noodles), palabok (rice noodles with a shrimp-based sauce), tokwa’t baboy (fried tofu with boiled pork ears in a garlic-flavoured soy sauce and vinegar dressing), and dinuguan (a spicy stew made of pork blood), which is often served with puto (steamed rice flour cakes).

While the census of 1903 and of 1905 officially reported that the number of Spanish-speakers have never exceeded 10% of the total population during the final decade of the 19th century, it only considered Spanish speakers as their first and only language. It disregarded the Catholic Chinese Filipinos, many of whom spoke Spanish, and the creole-speaking communities.[6] Furthermore, those who were academically instructed in the public school system also used Spanish as their second or third language. These together would have placed the numbers at more than 60% of the 9,000,000 Filipinos of that era as Spanish-speakers.[6]

After the war, Spanish became increasingly marginalized at an official level. As English and American-influenced pop culture increased, the use of Spanish in all aspects gradually declined. In 1962, when President Diosdado Macapagal decreed that the Philippines mark independence day on June 12 instead of July 4 which the country gained complete independence from the United States, it revealed a tendency to paint Spain as the villain and the United States as saviour, or the more benevolent colonial power.[60] The Spanish language and Hispanic culture was demonized again.[50][not in citation given] In 1973, Spanish briefly lost its status as an official language of the Philippines, was quickly redesignated as an official language, and finally did lose official status with the ratification of a subsequent constitution in 1987.[1]

Popular crops such as cassava root, sweet potatoes, and yams are grown.

Mechado, kaldereta, and afritada are Spanish influenced tomato sauce-based dishes that are somewhat similar to one another. In these dishes meat is cooked in tomato sauce, minced garlic, and onions. Mechado gets its name from the pork fat that is inserted in a slab of beef making it look like a wick (mitsa) coming out of a beef “candle”. The larded meat is then cooked in a seasoned tomato sauce and later sliced and served with the sauce it was cooked in. Kaldereta can be beef but is also associated with goat. Chunks of meat are cooked in tomato sauce, minced garlic, chopped onions, peas, carrots, bell peppers and potatoes to make a stew with some recipes calling for the addition of soy sauce, fish sauce, vinegar, chilies, ground liver or some combination thereof. Afritada tends to be the name given to the dish when chicken and pork is used. Another similar dish said to originate from the Rizal area is waknatoy. Pork or beef sirloin is combined with potatoes and cut sausages and cooked in a tomato-based sauce sweetened with pickles. Puchero is derived from the Spanish cocido; it is a sweeter stew that has beef and banana or plantain slices simmered in tomato sauce.

Calamansi extract is a common drink in the Philippine households.

Also during the colonial era, the Spaniards born in the Philippines, who were more known as insulares, criollos, or Creoles, were also called “Filipinos.” Spanish-born Spaniards or mainland Spaniards residing in the Philippines were referred to as Peninsulares. Peoples born in Spanish America or in the North American continent of New Spain who were residing in the Philippines were collectively referred to as Americanos. The Catholic Austronesian peoples of the Philippines were referred to as Indios and for those who were practicing the Islamic faith, Moros. The indigenous Aetas were referred to as Negritos. Chinese settlers were called Sangleyes. Japanese settlers were called Japoneses. Those of mixed ancestry were referred to as Mestizos or Tornatrás. In the 1800s, the term “Filipino” gradually became synonymous to anyone born in the Philippines regardless of ethnicity through the effort of the Insulares, from whom, Filipino nationalism began.

The Philippine islands are home to various ethnic groups resulting in varied regional cuisines.

There is also iskrambol (from the English “to scramble”), a kind of iced-based treat similar to a sorbet. The shaved ice is combined with various flavorings and usually topped with chocolate syrup. It is eaten by “scrambling” the contents or mixing them, then drinking with a large straw. It was later modified into ice scramble, or simply scramble, but with added skim milk, chocolate or strawberry syrup, and a choice of toppings such as marshmallows, chocolate or candy sprinkles, rice crispies, or tapioca pearls.

Aklan is synonymous with Inubarang Manok, chicken simmered in coconut milk, as well as Binakoe na Manok, chicken cooked in bamboo with lemongrass. Of particular interest is tamilok (wood worms), which is either eaten raw or dipped in an acidic sauce such as vinegar or calamansi.[19][20] There is a special prevalence of chicken and coconut milk (gata) in Akeanon cooking.[21]

1 History and influences 2 Characteristics 3 Common dishes 4 Breakfast 5 Merienda 6 Pulutan 7 Bread and pastries 8 Fiesta food 9 Regional specialties 9.1 Luzonese cuisine 9.2 Visayan cuisine 9.3 Mindanaon cuisine 10 Main dishes 11 Side dishes and complements 12 Desserts 13 Street food and other snacks 14 Exotic dishes 15 Cooking methods 16 Native ingredients 17 Beverages 17.

1 Chilled drinks and shakes 17.1.1 Brewed beverages 17.2 Alcoholic beverages 18 Eating methods 19 See also 20 References 21 Further reading 22 External links

Lumpia is a spring roll of Chinese origin commonly found in the Philippines.

Lamaw (Buko salad), is a mixture of young coconut, its juice, milk or orange juice, with ice.

Turon, a kind of lumpia consisting of an eggroll or phyllo wrapper commonly filled with sliced plantain and occasionally jackfruit, is fried and sprinkled with sugar.

The most common way of having fish is to have it salted, pan-fried or deep-fried, and then eaten as a simple meal with rice and vegetables. It may also be cooked in a sour broth of tomatoes or tamarind as in pangat, prepared with vegetables and a souring agent to make sinigang, simmered in vinegar and peppers to make paksiw, or roasted over hot charcoal

Kapampangan cuisine makes use of all the produce in the region available to the native cook. Among the treats produced in Pampanga are longganisa (original sweet and spicy sausages), calderetang kambing (savory goat stew), and tocino (sweetened cured pork). Combining pork cheeks and offal, Kapampangans make sisig.

The country’s first two constitutions and historic novels were written in Spanish. While widely understood by the majority of the population, Spanish at this time was the unifying language since Tagalog was not as prominent or ubiquitous as it is today and each region had their own culture and language, and would rather speak in their local languages. Before the spread of Filipino nationalism, the natives of each region still thought of themselves as Ilocano, Cebuano, Bicolano, Waray, Tagalog etc., and not as Filipinos.

Sinilihan, popularly known as Bicol Express is a famous dish from Bicol

Although the greatest linguistic impact and loanwords have been from Spanish to the languages of the Philippines, the Philippine languages have also loaned some words to Spanish.

Aside from pastries and desserts, there are heartier snacks for merienda that can also serve as either an appetizer or side dish for a meal. Siomai is the local version of Chinese shaomai. Lumpia are spring rolls that can be either fresh or fried. Fresh lumpia (lumpiang sariwa) is usually made for fiestas or special occasions as it can be labor-intensive to prepare, while one version of fried lumpia (lumpiang prito), lumpiang shanghai is usually filled with ground pork and a combination of vegetables, and served with a sweet and sour dipping sauce.[33] Other variations are filled with minced pork and shrimp and accompanied by a vinegar-based dipping sauce. Lumpia has been commercialized in frozen food form. Also, one of the common street food would be the Beef Pares in Manila. While Middle-Eastern food such as the Shawarma became popular in the Philippines in the late 1980s.

By the 1940s as children educated in English became adults, the Spanish language was starting to decline rapidly. Still, a very significant community of Filipino Spanish-speakers lived in the bigger cities, with a total population of roughly 300,000. However, with the destruction of Manila during the Japanese occupation in World War II, the heart of the Spanish language in the Philippines was dismantled.[56][57][58] Many Spanish-speaking Filipino families perished during the massacre and bombing of the cities and municipalities between 1942 and 1945. By the end of the war, an estimated 1 million Filipinos lost their lives.[59] Some of those Spanish-speakers who survived were forced to migrate in the later years.

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Filipino soups tend to be very hearty and stew-like containing large chunks of meat and vegetables or noodles. They are usually intended to be filling and not meant to be a light preparatory introduction for the main course. They tend to be served with the rest of the meal and eaten with rice when they are not meals unto themselves. They are often referred to on local menus under the heading sabaw (broth). Sinigang is a popular dish in this category distinguished by its sourness that often vies with adobo for consideration as the national dish. It is typically made with either pork, beef, chicken or seafood and made sour with tamarind or other suitable souring ingredients. Some seafood variants for example can be made sour by the use of guava fruit or miso. Another dish is tinola. It has large chicken pieces and green papaya/sayote slices cooked with chili, spinach, and moringa leaves in a ginger-flavored broth. Nilagang baka is a beef stew made with cabbages and other vegetables. Binacol is a warm chicken soup cooked with coconut water and served with strips of coconut meat. La Paz batchoy is a noodle soup garnished with pork innards, crushed pork cracklings, chopped vegetables, and topped with a raw egg. Another dish with the same name uses misua, beef heart, kidneys and intestines, but does not contain eggs or vegetables. Mami is a noodle soup made from chicken, beef, pork, wonton dumplings, or intestines (called laman-loob). Ma Mon Luk was known for it. Another chicken noodle soup is sotanghon, consisting of cellophane noodles[28] (also called sotanghon and from whence the name of the dish is derived), chicken, and sometimes mushrooms.

Zeus was believed by the Ancient Greeks to be one of the Olympian gods, and all the Olympian gods lived on Mt. Olympus. There were twelve Olympians. They were: Zeus, Poseidon,… Hera, Demeter, Aphrodite, Ares, Hephaestus, Apollo, Artemis, Dionysus, Her (MORE)

Spanish loan word Origin Via Tagalog English equivalent abacá Old Tagalog: abacá abaká abaca baguio Old Tagalog: baguio bagyo typhoon or hurricane barangay Old Tagalog: balan͠gay baranggay/barangay barangay bolo Old Tagalog: bolo bolo bolo carabao Old Visayan: carabáo kalabáw carabao caracoa Old Malay: coracora Old Tagalog: caracoa karakaw caracoa, a war canoe cogón Old Tagalog: cogón kogón cogon dalaga Old Tagalog: dalaga dalaga single, young woman gumamela Old Tagalog: gumamela gumamela Chinese hibiscus nipa Old Malay: nipah Old Tagalog: nipa nipa nipa palm paipay Old Tagalog: paypay or pay-pay pamaypay a type of fan palay Old Tagalog: palay palay unhusked rice pantalán Old Tagalog: pantalán pantalán wooden pier salisipan Old Tagalog: salicipan salisipan salisipan, a pirate ship sampagita Old Tagalog: sampaga sampagita jasmine sawali Old Tagalog: sauali sawali sawali, a woven bamboo mat tuba Old Tagalog: tuba tuba palm wine yoyó Ilocano: yoyo Ilocano: yoyó yo-yó yo-yo See also[edit] Hispanic influence on Filipino culture Latin Union Filipinas, Ahora Mismo Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language Philippine literature in Spanish Philippine Spanish Philippine–Spanish Friendship Day Philippines education during Spanish rule Spanish Filipino Notes[edit] Bibliography[edit]

The Igorot prefer roasted meats, particularly carabao meat, goat meat, and venison.

Dim sum and dumplings, brought to the islands by Fujianese migrants, have been given a Filipino touch and are also popular merienda fare. Street food, such as squid balls and fish balls, are often skewered on bamboo sticks and consumed with soy sauce and the sour juice of the calamondin as condiments.

Initially, the stance of the Roman Catholic Church and its missionaries was to preach to the natives in local languages, not in Spanish. The priests learned the native languages and sometimes employed indigenous peoples as translators, creating a bilingual class known as Ladinos.[18] Before the 19th century, the natives generally were not taught Spanish. However, there were notable bilingual individuals such as poet-translator Gaspar Aquino de Belén. Gaspar produced Christian devotional poetry written in the Roman script in the Tagalog language. Pasyon is a narrative of the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ begun by Gaspar Aquino de Belén, which has circulated in many versions. Later, the Spanish-Mexican ballads of chivalry, the corrido, provided a model for secular literature. Verse narratives, or komedya, were performed in the regional languages for the illiterate majority.

You can also find tuhog-tuhog accompanied by sweet or spicy sauce. This include Fish balls, Kikiam, Squid balls etc., these are commonly served during a small gathering or in local bars.

With the era of the Philippines as a Spanish colony with its people as Spanish citizens[44] having just ended, a considerable amount of media, newspapers, radios, and government proceedings were still written and produced in Spanish. By law, the Taft Commission allowed their guests to use the language of their choice.[45] Ironically, the partial freedom of the press allowed by the American rulers served to further promote Spanish-language literacy among the masses. Even in the early 20th century, a hegemony of Spanish language was still in force.[3]

Spanish was used by the first Filipino patriots like José Rizal, Andrés Bonifacio and, to a lesser extent, Emilio Aguinaldo. The 1896 Biak-na-Bato Constitution and the 1898 Malolos Constitution were both written in Spanish. Neither specified a national language, but both recognised the continuing use of Spanish in Philippine life and legislation.[4][36] Aguinaldo was more comfortable speaking Tagalog.[37] Spanish was used to write the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, Malolos Constitution, the original national anthem, Himno Nacional Filipino, as well as nationalistic propaganda material and literature.

It did not help when some Filipino nationalists and nationalist historiographers during the American Colonial Period who took their liberal ideas from the writings of the 19th century Filipino Propaganda which portrayed Spain and all things Spanish as negative or evil. Therefore, Spanish as a language was demonized as a sad reminder of the past.[52] These ideas gradually inculcated into the minds of the young generation of Filipinos (during and after the American administration) who used those history textbooks at school that tended to generalize all Spaniards as villains due to lack of emphasis on Filipino people of Spanish ancestry who were also against the local Spanish government and clergy and also fought and died for the sake of freedom during the 19th century revolts, during the Philippine Revolution, during the Philippine–American War and during World War II.[53][54][55]

Rice and coconuts as staples throughout the archipelago as in the rest of Southeast Asia meant similar or adopted dishes and methods based on these crops. Some of these are evident in the infusion of coconut milk particularly in the renowned laing and sinilihan (popularized as Bicol Express) of Bikol. Other regional variants of stews or soups commonly tagged as ginataan(g) or “with coconut milk” also abound Filipino kitchens and food establishments. A dish from the Visayas simmered in coconut water, ideally in bamboo, is the binakol usually with chicken as the main ingredient.

In Manila, the Spanish language had been more or less widespread, to the point where it has been estimated at around 50% of the population knew Spanish in the late 19th century.[22] In his 1898 book “Yesterdays in the Philippines”, covering a period beginning in 1893, the American Joseph Earle Stevens, an American who resided in Manila from 1893 to 1894, wrote:

Tokwa’t baboy is fried tofu with boiled pork marinated in a garlic-flavored soy sauce or vinegar dip. It is also served as a side dish to pancit luglog or pancit palabok.

Due to the huge demand for Spanish speakers among business process outsourcing companies in the Philippines, Filipinos are flocking to Instituto Cervantes and other language centers in order to learn Spanish.[78]

Paksiw refers to different vinegar-based stews that differ greatly from one another based on the type of meat used. Paksiw na isda uses fish and usually includes the addition of ginger, fish sauce, and maybe siling mahaba and vegetables. Paksiw na baboy is a paksiw using pork, usually pork hocks, and often sees the addition of sugar, banana blossoms, and water so that the meat is stewed in a sweet sauce. A similar Visayan dish called humba adds fermented black beans. Both dishes are probably related to pata tim which is of Chinese origin. Paksiw na lechon is made from lechon meat and features the addition of ground liver or liver spread. This adds flavor and thickens the sauce so that it starts to caramelize around the meat by the time dish is finished cooking. Although some versions of paksiw dishes are made using the same basic ingredients as adobo, they are prepared differently, with other ingredients added and the proportions of ingredients and water being different.

Spanish colonizers and friars in the 16th century brought with them produce from the Americas like chili peppers, tomatoes, corn, potatoes, and the method of sautéing with garlic and onions. Chili leaves are frequently used as a cooking green. Spanish (and Mexican) dishes were eventually incorporated into Filipino cuisine with the more complex dishes usually being prepared for special occasions. Some dishes such as arroz a la valenciana remain largely the same in the Philippine context. Some have been adapted or have come to take on a slightly or significantly different meaning. Arroz a la cubana served in the Philippines usually includes ground beef picadillo. Philippine longganisa despite its name is more akin to chorizo than Spanish longaniza (in Visayan regions, it is still known as chorizo). Morcon is likely to refer to a beef roulade dish not the bulbous specialty Spanish sausage.

Ube halaya, sapin-sapin, kalamay, suman, and various other kakanin

Until the Second World War, Spanish was the language of Manila.[22] After the war, the English-speaking U.S. having won three wars [in 1898, against Spain (Spanish–American War); in 1913 (from Philippine–American War to Moro Rebellion) against the Filipino independence; in 1945 against Japan (Philippines Campaign)], the English language was imposed.[22]

Lambanog is an alcoholic beverage commonly described as coconut wine or coconut vodka. The drink is distilled from the sap of the unopened coconut flower, and is known for its potency and high alcohol content (80 and 90 proof). Most of the Lambanog distilleries are in the Quezon province of Luzon, Philippines. Constant efforts at standardizing lambanog production has led to its better quality. Presently, lambanog is being exported to other countries and continues to win foreign customers over due to its natural ingredients as well as its potency.

External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuisine of the Philippines. Filipino cuisine at Curlie McGeown, Kate (12 September 2012). “Philippine chefs look to take national cuisine mainstream”. BBC News. Retrieved 12 September 2012.

Noodle dishes are generally called pancit. Pancit recipes primarily consist of noodles, vegetables, and slices of meat or shrimp with variations often distinguished by the type of noodles used. Some pancit, such as mami and La Paz-styled batchoy, are noodle soups while the “dry” varieties are comparable to chow mein in preparation. Then there is spaghetti or ispageti in the local parlance that is a modified version of spaghetti bolognese. It is sometimes made with banana ketchup instead of tomato sauce, sweetened with sugar and topped with hot dog slices.

Ilocanos, from the rugged Ilocos region, boast of a diet heavy in boiled or steamed vegetables and freshwater fish, but they are particularly fond of dishes flavored with bagoong, fermented fish that is often used instead of salt. Ilocanos often season boiled vegetables with bagoong monamon (fermented anchovy paste) to produce pinakbet. Local specialties include the soft white larvae of ants and “jumping salad” of tiny live shrimp.

Itlog na pula (red eggs) are duck eggs that have been cured in brine or a mixture of clay-and-salt for a few weeks, making them salty. They are later hard boiled and dyed with red food coloring (hence the name) to distinguish them from chicken eggs before they are sold over the shelves. They are often served mixed in with diced tomatoes. Atchara is a side dish of pickled papaya strips similar to sauerkraut. It’s a frequent accompaniment to fried dishes like tapa or daing.

Vinegar is a common ingredient. Adobo is popular[2] not solely for its simplicity and ease of preparation, but also for its ability to be stored for days without spoiling, and even improve in flavor with a day or two of storage. Tinapa is a smoke-cured fish while tuyo, daing, and dangit are corned, sun-dried fish popular because they can last for weeks without spoiling, even without refrigeration.

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As of 2012[update], of the younger generation of Filipino Hispanophones are following the Spanish orthographic convention of typing letters with diacritic marks (acute accents and diaeresis) as well as the inverted question and exclamation marks and the rest of the special characters and symbols found in Spanish orthography on their US standard layout computer keyboards by using the AltGr key, Modifier key, Code page 437, Code page 850, Microsoft Windows Alt Key Numeric Codes for character shortcuts, or the US-International keyboard layout.[citation needed]

The following words do not fall under false friends. They are still a source of confusion:

Many Spanish-speaking Filipino families perished during the Philippine–American War. According to the historian James B. Goodno, author of the Philippines: Land of Broken Promises (New York, 1998), one-sixth of the total population of Filipinos or about 1.5 million died as a direct result of the war.[6][41][42][43]

Filipino cuisine centres around the combination of sweet (tamis), sour (asim), and salty (alat),[2] although in Bicol, the Cordilleras and among Muslim Filipinos, spicy (anghang) is a base of cooking flavor.

The following are some of the words of Philippine origin that can be found in the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española, the dictionary published by the Real Academia Española:[82]

A Tata Itong restaurant in San Miguel, Bulacan known for serving Filipino exotic dishes including Soup No. 5 and papaitan.

Philippine Spanish (Spanish: Español filipino, Castellano filipino) is a variant of standard Spanish, spoken in the Philippines by a minority today, though it was quite widespread up to the early 20th century. The variant is very similar to Mexican Spanish, because the Philippines was ruled from New Spain in present-day Mexico, for over three centuries. During that period, there was much Spanish and Mexican emigration to the Spanish East Indies.

Street food featuring eggs include kwek-kwek which are hard-boiled quail eggs dipped in orange-dyed batter and then deep fried similar to tempura. Tokneneng is a larger version of kwek-kwek using chicken or duck eggs. Another Filipino egg snack is balut, essentially a boiled pre-hatched poultry egg, usually duck or chicken. These fertilized eggs are allowed to develop until the embryo reaches a pre-determined size and are then boiled. There is also another egg item called penoy, which is basically hard-boiled unfertilized duck eggs that does not contain embryo. Like taho, balut is advertised by street hawkers calling out their product.

Deep fried pulutan include chicharrón (also spelled chicharon or tsitsaron), pork rinds that have been boiled and then twice fried, the second frying gives the crunchiness and golden color; chicharong bituka, pig intestines that have been deep fried to a crisp; chicharong bulaklak, similar to chicharong bituka it is made from mesenteries of pig intestines and has an appearance roughly resembling a flower, hence the bulaklak name; and chicharong manok, chicken skin that has been deep fried until crisp.

Some exotic dishes in the Filipino diet are camaro, which are field crickets cooked in soy sauce, salt, and vinegar, and is popular in Pampanga; papaitan, which is a stew made of goat or beef innards flavored with bile that gives it its characteristic bitter (pait) taste; Soup No. 5 (Also spelled as “Soup #5”) which is a soup made out of bull’s testes,[34][35] and can be found in restaurants in Ongpin St., Binondo, Manila; and pinikpikan na manok that involves having a chicken beaten to death to tenderize the meat and to infuse it with blood. It is then burned in fire to remove its feathers then boiled with salt and itag (salt/smoke cured pork).[36][37] The act of beating the chicken in preparation of the dish violates the Philippine Animal Welfare Act of 1998.[38]

The term “Filipino” originally referred to the natives of the Philippines themselves. It was Pedro Chirino, a Spanish Jesuit, who first called the natives “Filipinos,” in his book Relación de las Islas Filipinas (Rome, 1604). However, during their 333-year rule of the Philippines, the Spanish rulers preferred to call the natives Indios.[38]

Some well-known stews are kare-kare and dinuguan. In kare-kare, also known as “peanut stew”, oxtail or ox tripe is the main ingredient and is cooked with vegetables in a peanut-based preparation. It is typically served with bagoong (fermented shrimp paste). In dinuguan, pig’s blood, entrails, and meat are cooked with vinegar and seasoned with chili peppers, usually siling mahaba.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the oldest educational institutions in the country were set up by Spanish religious orders. These schools and universities played a crucial role in the development of the Spanish language in the islands. Colegio de Manila in Intramuros was founded in 1590. The Colegio formally opened in 1595, and was one of the first schools in the Philippines.[27] During the same year, the University of San Carlos in Cebú, was established as the Colegio de San Ildefonso by the Jesuits. In 1611, the University of Santo Tomás, considered as the oldest existing university in Asia, was inaugurated in Manila by the Dominicans. In the 18th century, fluent male Spanish speakers in the Philippines were generally the graduates of these schools, as well as of the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán, established in 1620. In 1706, a convent school for Philippine women known as Beaterios was established. It admitted both Spanish and native girls, and taught Religion, Reading, Writing and Arithmetic with Music and Embroidery. Female graduates from Beaterios were fluent in the language as well. In 1859, Ateneo de Manila University was established by the Jesuits as the Escuela Municipal.[27]

For festive occasions, people band together and prepare more sophisticated dishes. Tables are often laden with expensive and labor-intensive treats requiring hours of preparation. In Filipino celebrations, lechón (also spelled litson)[14] serves as the centerpiece of the dinner table. It is usually a whole roasted pig, but suckling pigs (lechonillo, or lechon de leche) or cattle calves (lechong baka) can also be prepared in place of the popular adult pig. It is typically served with lechon sauce, which is traditionally made from the roasted pig’s liver. Other dishes include hamonado (honey-cured beef, pork or chicken), relleno (stuffed chicken or milkfish), mechado, afritada, caldereta, puchero, paella, menudo, morcon, embutido (referring to a meatloaf dish, not a sausage as understood elsewhere), suman (a savory rice and coconut milk concoction steamed in leaves such as banana), and pancit canton. The table may also be have various sweets and pastries such as leche flan, ube, sapin-sapin, sorbetes (ice creams), totong or sinukmani (a rice, coconut milk and mongo bean pudding), ginataan (a coconut milk pudding with various root vegetables and tapioca pearls), and gulaman (an agar jello-like ingredient or dessert).

Early flag of the Filipino revolutionaries (“Long live the Philippine Republic!”). The first two constitutions were written in Spanish.

Pulutan[12] (from the Filipino word pulutin which literally means “to pick something up”) is a term roughly analogous to the English term “finger food” or Spanish Tapas. Originally, it was a snack accompanied with liquor or beer but has found its way into Philippine cuisine as appetizers or, in some cases, main dishes, as in the case of sisig.

Chilled drinks are popular due to the tropical climate. Stands selling cold fruit drinks and fruit shakes are common in many of the city areas, where some are based on green mandarin orange (dalandan or dalanghita), pomelo (suha), pineapple (pinya), banana (saging), and soursop (guyabano). The shakes usually contain crushed ice, evaporated or condensed milk, and fruits like the perennially popular mango. Other fruits are avocado, cantaloupe, durian, papaya, strawberry and watermelon, to name a few.

A heavier version of leche flan, tocino del cielo, is similar, but has significantly more egg yolks and sugar.

The Southern Philippine dish Satti, served with Ta’mu (ketupat) rice cakes.

Republic Act No. 9187 was approved on February 5, 2003 and signed by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, declaring June 30 of every year as Philippine–Spanish Friendship Day to commemorate the cultural and historical ties, friendship and cooperation between the Philippines and Spain.[65] On July 3, 2006, the Union of Local Authorities of the Philippines created Resolution No. 2006-028 urging the national government to support and promote the teaching of the Spanish language in all public and private universities and colleges in the Philippines.[66] On December 17, 2007, the Department of Education issued Memorandum No. 490, s. 2007 encouraging secondary schools to offer basic and advanced Spanish in the 3rd and 4th year levels respectively, as an elective.[67] As of 2008[update], there was a growing demand for Spanish-speaking agents in the call center industry as well as in the business process outsourcing in the Philippines for the Spanish and American market. Around 7,000 students were enrolled in the Spanish language classes of the Instituto Cervantes de Manila for the school year 2007–2008.[68] On December 11, 2008, the Department of Education issued Memorandum No. 560, s. 2008 that shall implement the Special Program in Foreign Language on a pilot basis starting school year 2009–2010. The program shall initially offer Spanish as a foreign language in one school per region, at two classes of 35 students each, per school.[69] As of 2009, the Spanish government has offered to fund a project and even offered scholarship grants to Spain for public school teachers and students who would like to study Spanish or take up a master’s degree in four top universities in Spain. The Spanish government has been funding the ongoing pilot teacher training program about the Spanish language, involving two months of face-to-face classes and a 10-month on-line component.[70] Clásicos Hispanofilipinos is a project of Instituto Cervantes de Manila which aims to promote Filipino heritage and preserve and reintroduce the works of great Fil-Hispanic authors of the early 20th century to the new generation of Filipino Hispanophones. The Spanish novel of Jesús Balmori entitled Los Pájaros de Fuego (Birds of Fire) which was mostly written during the Japanese occupation was published by the Instituto June 28, 2010.[71] King Juan Carlos I commented in 2007 that, “In fact, some of the beautiful pages of Spanish literature were written in the Philippines”.[72]

Sapin-sapin, a sweet Filipino rice-based delicacy similar to mochi

The egg pie with a very rich egg custard filling is a mainstay in local bakeries. It is typically baked so that the exposed custard on top is browned. Buko pie is made with a filling made from young coconut meat and dairy. Mini pastries like turrones de casuy are made up of cashew marzipan wrapped with a wafer made to resemble a candy wrapper but take on a miniature look of a pie in a size of about a quarter. There is also napoleones – again with all the vowels pronounced – a mille-feuille pastry stuffed with a sweet milk-based filling.

Another popular dish from this region is tiyula itum, a dark broth of beef or chicken lightly flavored with ginger, chili, turmeric, and toasted coconut flesh (which gives it its dark color).

Tea consumption in the Philippines is driven primarily by growing health consciousness amongst middle- to high-income consumers.[46] Tea is commonly prepared using Philippine wild tea or tea tree.[47] There are several known variations of tea using different additives. Pandan iced tea is one of these, made with pandan leaves and lemongrass (locally known as tanglad). Salabat, sometimes called ginger tea, is brewed from ginger root and usually served during the cold months, and when illnesses such as flu or sore throat strikes.

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Adobo is one of the most popular Filipino dishes and is considered unofficially by many as the national dish. It usually consists of pork or chicken, sometimes both, stewed or braised in a sauce usually made from vinegar, cooking oil, garlic, bay leaf, peppercorns, and soy sauce. It can also be prepared “dry” by cooking out the liquid and concentrating the flavor. Bistek, also known as “Filipino beef steak,” consists of thinly sliced beef marinated in soy sauce and calamansi and then fried in a skillet that is typically served with onions.

Cooking and eating in the Philippines has traditionally been an informal and communal affair centered around the family kitchen. Filipinos traditionally eat three main meals a day: agahan or almusal (breakfast), tanghalían (lunch), and hapunan (dinner) plus an afternoon snack called meriénda (also called minandál or minindál). Snacking is normal. Dinner, while still the main meal, is smaller than other countries. Usually, either breakfast or lunch is the largest meal. Food tends to be served all at once and not in courses. Unlike many of their Asian counterparts Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks. Due to Western influence, food is often eaten using flatware—forks, knives, spoons—but the primary pairing of utensils used at a Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. The traditional way of eating is with the hands, especially dry dishes such as inihaw or prito. The diner will take a bite of the main dish, then eat rice pressed together with his fingers. This practice, known as kamayan, is rarely seen in urbanized areas. However, Filipinos tend to feel the spirit of kamayan when eating amidst nature during out-of-town trips, beach vacations, and town fiestas.[7]

Tapuy is a traditional Philippine alcoholic drink made from fermented glutinous rice. It is a clear wine of luxurious alcoholic taste, moderate sweetness and lingering finish. Its average alcohol content is 14% or 28 proof, and it does not contain any preservatives or sugar. To increase the awareness of tapuy, the Philippine Rice Research Institute has created a cookbook containing recipes and cocktails from famous Filipino chefs and bartenders, featuring tapuy as one of the ingredients.

Tuba (toddy) is a type of hard liquor made from fresh drippings extracted from a cut young stem of palm. The cutting of the palm stem usually done early in the morning by a mananguete, a person who climbs palm trees and extracts the tuba to supply to customers later in the day. The morning’s accumulated palm juice or drippings are then harvested by noon, and brought to buyers then prepared for consumption. Sometimes this is done twice a day so that there are two harvests of tuba occurring first at noon-time and then in the late-afternoon. Normally, tuba has to be consumed right after the mananguete brings it over, or it becomes too sour to be consumed as a drink. Any remaining unconsumed tuba is then often stored in jars to ferment for several days and become palm vinegar. Tuba can be distilled to produce lambanog (arrack), a neutral liquor often noted for its relatively high alcohol content.

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Chupá Culo & Curacha con Gatâ are examples of a Zamboangueño dishes made from shells cooked with coconut milk and crab with sauce blended in coconut milk with spices, respectively. There are other known Zamboangueño dishes and delicacy like Estofado, Sicalañg, Alfajor, Endulzao, Tamal, Paella, Arroz a la Valenciana, Rebosao, Toron, and more.

Other similar treats made with shaved ice include saba con yelo which is shaved ice served with milk and minatamis na saging (ripe plantains chopped and caramelized with brown sugar); mais con yelo which is shaved ice served with steamed corn kernels, sugar, and milk; and buko pandan sweetened grated strips of coconut with gulaman, milk, and the juice or extract from pandan leaves. Sorbetes (ice cream) is popular, as well, with some local versions utilizing coconut milk instead of cow milk. Ice candy, are popular frozen snacks usually made from fruit juice, chocolate or local ingredients such as mung beans and ube. It can be any kind of flavor depending on the maker; chocolate and buko (coconut) flavored ice candy are two of the most popular. Another dessert, often served during Christmas and New Year’s Eve, is mango float,[32] a dessert composed of Graham cracker, mangoes, cream and milk, and created by layering them together in a dish and then refrigerating or blast chilling.

Even before the establishment of coffeehouses in the Philippines, coffee has been part of the Filipino meal. Carinderias would often serve them along with meals. The opening of Starbucks in 1997 paved the way for other coffee shops.[45]

Alcuaz, N.T. (2005). Banana Leaves: Filipino Cooking and Much More. Victoria: Trafford. ISBN 1-4120-5378-1. Retrieved 2009-12-12. Alejandro, Reynaldo. (1985). The Philippine Cookbook. New York: Perigee Books.

p. 13. ISBN 0-399-51144-X. Retrieved 2009-12-10. Aleson, Susana, Alice Gratil, Lota Ignacio, Mhila Baiyon, Gladys Moya, and Virginia Zarate. (1998). Cocina Filipina (in Spanish). Barcelona: Icaria. ISBN 84-7426-358-1.

Retrieved 2009-12-12.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Arroyo, Patricia T. (1974). The Science of Philippine food. Quezon City: Abaniko Enterprises. Barreto, Glenda R. (2007). Flavors of the Philippines – A Culinary Guide to the Best of the Islands.

Manila: Anvil. ISBN 971-27-1869-7. Barreto, Glenda R., Conrad Calalang, Margarita Fores, Myrna Segismundo, Jessie Sincioco, and Claude Tayag. (2008). Kulinarya – A Guidebook to Philippine Cuisine (Michaela Fenix, Ed.

). Manila: Asia Society. ISBN 971-27-2108-6. Bernardino, Minnie. (September 27, 1990). “Breakfast – 8 Places Off the Beaten-Egg Track – Ethnic fare: Breakfast is many things to many peoples, as L.

A.’s restaurants prove. A sampling from the variety available to a.m. adventurers. – Filipino”. Los Angeles Times. Bayhon-Yrastorza, Caren. (December 16, 2010). Recipe: Chicken relleno for Noche Buena.

ABS-CBN News. Retrieved December 24, 2010. Classic, fail-safe ‘Noche Buena’ recipes. (December 24, 2009). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved December 24, 2010. Davidson, Alan and Tom Jaine. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food (2nd ed.

). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 600–601. ISBN 0-19-280681-5. Davidson, Alan. (2003). Seafood of South-East Asia: A Comprehensive Guide with Recipes (2nd ed.). Ten Speed Press. pp. 279–295.

ISBN 1-58008-452-4. Retrieved 2009-12-14. DuJunco, Mercedes. (2006). “Luzon, Philippines”. In Sean Williams. The Ethnomusicologists’ Cookbook: Complete Meals from Around the World. New York: Routledge.

p. 85. ISBN 0-415-97818-1. Retrieved 2009-12-10. Fernandez, Doreen. (1988). “Culture Ingested: On the Indigenization of Philippine Food”. In E.N. Alegre & D. G. Fernandez (Eds.) Sarap: Essays on Philippine Food.

Manila: Mr. & Ms. Publishing Company, Inc. Retrieved 2010-08-02. Fernandez, Doreen. (2000). “What is Filipino Food?”. In Reynaldo G. Alejandro. Food of the Philippines. Boston: Periplus Editions. p. 7.

ISBN 962-593-245-3. Retrieved 2009-12-10. Gelle, Gerry G. (2008). Filipino Cuisine: Recipes from the Islands (3rd ed.). Museum of New Mexico Press. ISBN 0-89013-513-4. Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004).

Philippine History. Rex Bookstore. pp. 42–50. ISBN 971-23-3934-3. Retrieved 2011-02-02. International Business Publications, USA. (2008). Philippines Country Study Guide (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.

: International Business Publications, USA. pp. 111–113. ISBN 1-4330-3970-2. Retrieved 2009-12-12. Nolan, James L. (1996). Philippines Business: The Portable Encyclopedia for Doing Business with the Philippines.

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[Quezon City:] R. P. Garcia Pub. Co. Philippine Cuisine. (n.d.). Tagalog at NIU. Retrieved 2011-01-17 from the Northern Illinois University, Center for Southeast Asian Studies, SEAsite Project. Rodell, Paul A.

(2002). Culture and Customs of the Philippines. Westport: Greenwood. p. 102. ISBN 0-313-30415-7. Retrieved 2009-12-10. Rowthorn, Chris & Greg Bloom. (2006). Philippines (9th ed.). Lonely Planet. p. 47.

ISBN 1-74104-289-5. Retrieved 2009-12-10. Sokolov, Raymond. (1993). Why We Eat What We Eat – How Columbus Changed the Way the World Eats. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-79791-3. Solomon, Charmaine. (2002).

The Complete Asian Cookbook (2nd ed.). Turtle Publishing. pp. 347–366. ISBN 0-8048-3757-0. Retrieved 2009-12-14. Sta. Maria; Felice Prudente. (2006). The Governor-General’s Kitchen – Philippine Culinary Vignettes and Period Recipes – 1521–1935.

Manila: Anvil. ISBN 971-27-1696-1. Zibart, Eve. (2001). The Ethnic Food Lover’s Companion: Understanding the Cuisines of the World. Menasha Ridge Press. pp. 266–280. ISBN 0-89732-372-6. Retrieved 2009-12-14.

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The use of Spanish as an official language has been extended to January 1, 1920. Its general use seems to be spreading. Natives acquiring it learn it as a living speech. Everywhere they hear it spoken by leading people of the community and their ears are trained to its pronunciation. On the other hand, they (the natives) are practically without phonic standards in acquiring English and the result is that they learn it as a book language rather than as a living speech.

In December 2007, former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed a directive in Spain that require the teaching and learning of the Spanish language in the Philippine school system starting in 2008.[77]

There are approximately 4,000 Spanish words in Tagalog (between 20% and 33% of Tagalog words),[61] and around 6,000 Spanish words in Visayan and other Philippine languages. The Spanish counting system, calendar, time, etc. are still in use with slight modifications. Archaic Spanish words have been preserved in Tagalog and the other vernaculars, such as pera (coins), sabón [jabón) at the beginning of Spanish rule, the j used to be pronounced [ʃ], the voiceless postalveolar fricative or the “sh” sound; (soap)], relos [(reloj) with the j sound; (watch)], kwarta (cuarta; money), etc.[80] The Spaniards and the language are referred to as either Kastila or Katsila (mostly Visayan languages) after Castilla (Castile), the original Spanish Kingdom under which Spain was unified in 1492, which later became a Spanish region.

Pancit luglug topped with hardboiled eggs, shrimp, and chorizo.

In Mindanao, the southern part of Palawan island, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi, dishes are richly flavored with the spices common to Southeast Asia: turmeric, coriander, lemon grass, cumin, and chillies — ingredients not commonly used in the rest of Philippine cooking. The cuisine of the indigenous ethnolinguistic nations who are either Christian, Muslim or Lumad peoples of Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago has much in common with the rich and spicy Malay cuisine of Malaysia and Brunei, as well as Indonesian and Thai cuisine, and from other countries cuisines.

Sambal, a spicy sauce made with belacan, tamarind, aromatic spices and chillies, is a popular base of many dishes in the region.

In Bohol, kalamay is popular. In Palawan, crocodile meat is boiled, cured, and turned into tocinos. In Romblon, a speacialty dish is pounded and flavored shrimp meat and rice cooked inside banana leaves.

Merienda is taken from the Spanish, and is a light meal or snack especially in the afternoon, similar to the concept of afternoon tea.[10] If the meal is taken close to dinner, it is called merienda cena, and may be served instead of dinner.[11]

Taho is a warm treat made of soft beancurd which is the taho itself, dark caramel syrup called arnibal, and tapioca pearls. It is often sold in neighborhoods by street vendors who yell out “taho” in a manner comparative to vendors in the stands at sporting events yelling out “hotdogs” or “peanuts”. Sometimes, taho is served chilled, and flavors have recently been added, such as chocolate or strawberry. Taho is derived from the original Chinese snack food known as douhua.

There are also rolls like pianono, which is a chiffon roll flavored with different fillings. Brazo de mercedes, a rolled cake or jelly roll, is made from a sheet of meringue rolled around a custard filling. Similar to the previous dessert, it takes on a layered presentation instead of being rolled and typically features caramelized sugar and nuts for sans rival. Silvañas are large, oval-shaped, cookie-sized desserts, with a thin meringue on either side of a buttercream filling and dusted with crumbed cookies. Not overly sweet, they are rich, crisp, chewy, and buttery all at the same time. Barquillos use sweet thin crunchy wafers rolled into tubes that can be sold hollow or filled with polvoron (sweetened and toasted flour mixed with ground nuts). Meringues are also present in the Philippines, due to the Spanish influence, but they are called merengue – with all the vowels pronounced. Leche flan is a type of caramel custard made with eggs and milk similar to the French creme caramel. Leche flan (the local term for the original Spanish flan de leche, literally “milk flan”) is a heavier version of the Spanish flan made with condensed milk and more egg yolks. Leche flan is usually steamed over an open flame or stove top, although on rare occasions it can also be seen baked. Leche flan is a staple in celebratory feasts.

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