Hipped Steel Roof

November 25, 2018 5:48 am by zionstar
Metal hip roof installation
A hip roof construction in northern australia showing multinail truss construction the blue pieces are roll formed metal roof battens or purlins
Hipped Steel Roof
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Front Gable: A front gable roof is placed at the entrance of the house. This design is often seen in Colonial style houses.

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A hip roof has slopes on all four sides. The sides are all equal length and come together at the top to form the ridge.

Half-hipped roofs are very common in Denmark, Germany and especially in Austria and Slovenia. They are also typical of traditional timber frame buildings in the Wealden area of South East England.

In modern domestic architecture, hip roofs are commonly seen in bungalows and cottages, and have been integral to styles such as the American Foursquare. However, the hip roof has been used in many different styles of architecture and in a wide array of structures.

A hip roof is self-bracing, requiring less diagonal bracing than a gable roof. Hip roofs are thus much better suited for hurricane regions than gable roofs. Hip roofs have no large, flat, or slab-sided ends to catch wind and are inherently much more stable than gable roofs. However, for a hurricane region, the roof also has to be steep-sloped; at least 35 degrees from horizontal or steeper in slope is preferred. When wind flows over a shallow sloped hip roof, the roof can behave like an airplane wing. Lift is then created on the leeward side. The flatter the roof, the more likely this will happen. A steeper pitched hip roof tends to cause the wind to stall as it goes over the roof, breaking up the effect. If the roof slopes are less than 35 degrees from horizontal, the roof will be subject to uplift. Greater than 35 degrees, and not only does wind blowing over it encounter a stalling effect, but the roof is actually held down on the wall plate by the wind pressure.

Calculate the length of each of your common rafters. Once you’ve measured the width of your building, divide that number by 2 (since each rafter only covers half the roof). Subtract the width off the ridge board.

Then, calculate the roof pitch by writing down the number of inches that the roof is elevated vertically over the height of the roof. Use these measurements to calculate the length of each rafter using an online roofing calculator.

[2] For rafters on the short ends of the building, you’ll need to subtract the length of the ridge board from the total length of the building. This will indicate how long each of the long, lengthwise common rafters should measure.

Find a roofing calculator online at: https://www.roofcalc.org/roof-rafter-calculator/.

Nail the ridge beam between the centering rafters. Set 5-6 more common rafters in place and nail them to the walls of the structure. These additional centering rafters will support the ridge beam and prevent it from collapsing.

Once the extra common rafters are in place, use your nail gun to drive 1 nail through the top of each common rather and into the ridge beam.[7] For the sake of safety and practicality, ask 2 or 3 friends or family members to help you when you’re installing the ridge beam.

These helpers can hand the rafters to you as you attach them.

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Nail the plywood sheathing to the rafters. Sheathing goes onto a roof prior to the final roofing material (e.g., shingles). Pick a corner to start placing the plywood sheathing. Use nails to tack the sheet in place on the rafters to hold it in place while you work.

To make sure the first sheet of wood straight, tack up a second sheet next to it. Make sure the sheets are in line with the fascia so that the sheathing boards remain flat and level.[12] The fascia are the straight, long boards that run along the top of a wall beneath the bottom edge of the roof.

It’s attached to roof trusses.

If a gable roof is used in high wind areas, be sure proper braces are used and have the roof inspected after a large storm to ensure no damage occurred.

Side Gable: A side gable is a basic pitched roof. It has two equal panels or sides pitched at an angle. Both sides of the gable meet at the ridge in the middle of a building. The triangle section can be left open for an open gable roof, or it can be enclosed for a boxed gable roof.

Mark the birdsmouth location on the rafters. The birdsmouth is the name for a gap you carve out of the rafter so it can fit on top of the building’s wall. To find the location where you’ll cut the birdsmouth, use the triangular part of the carpenter’s square and trace it onto the plank of wood with a pencil.

[4] Mark the birdsmouth cut location on all common rafters, jack rafters, and hip rafters.

Typically 5/12 (every 12″ have a 5″ rise) but other factors like wind, rain, snow come into play. A 5/12 pitch may handle 10″ rainfall zones but may not be enough for southern rains of 20+ inches or melting snow, which will typically need 30 degrees or a 7/12 minimum roof pitch.

Check your resources for local rainfall, snow accumulation, and wind zones to select the best pitch.

A possible disadvantage of a hip roof, compared with a gable roof on the same plan, is that there is less room inside the roof space; access is more difficult for maintenance; hip roofs are harder to ventilate; and there is not a gable with a window for natural light. [2][3]

A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid. Hip roofs on houses could have two triangular sides and two trapezoidal ones. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has four faces. They are almost always at the same pitch or slope, which makes them symmetrical about the centerlines. Hip roofs often have a consistent level fascia, meaning that a gutter can be fitted all around. Hip roofs often have dormer slanted sides.

Half hip roofs are sometimes referred to as “Dutch hip”, but this term is easily confused with “Dutch gable”.

Attach 4-6 centering rafters and lift the ridge beam into place. The first step in the process of erecting the hip roof is to get the ridge beam into place at the top of the roof. Place the 4-6 common rafters in their designated positions along the 2 longest walls, and nail them firmly to the wall with a nail gun.

Then, lift the ridge beam to the correct height.[6] Centering rafters are common rafters that are used to steady the ridge beam.

A hip roof, hip-roof[1] or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls, usually with a fairly gentle slope (although a tented roof by definition is a hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak). Thus a hipped roof house has no gables or other vertical sides to the roof.

Do not secure the common rafters to the wall before nailing them to the roof beam as you may need to adjust their positioning along the wall after they are nailed in place.

Make the birdsmouth cuts in your common rafters. Use the framing square to find where the jack rafter’s plumb cuts will connect to the hip. The depth of the seat cut should be equal to the thickness of the wall you’re installing the rafter on.

When you have the length of the jack rafters, use a round saw to cut the seat and shoulder cuts.[5] A birdsmouth cut has 2 parts: a horizontal cut (called the seat cut) and a vertical cut (called a shoulder cut).

The seat rests on top of the wall that you’re attaching the particular rafter to, while the shoulder cut parallels the wall and allows several inches of each rafter to overhang the roof.

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In this Article:Article SummaryMeasuring and Cutting RaftersAssembling the King and Hip RaftersFinishing the Hip RoofCommunity Q&A

What can I do to prevent squirrels from getting into my attic from the corner of the roof?

Hip roofs are excellent for both high wind and snowy areas. The slant of the roof allows snow to easily slide off with no standing water.

It’s an excellent roof design for homes with separate wings. You can use the cross gable roof architecture to accent different areas of your home, such as the garage, porch or dormers.

Also known as pitched or peaked roof, gable roofs are some of the most popular roofs in the US. They are easily recognized by their triangular shape.

Nail the hip rafters to the ridge beam and the corners of the walls. Lift the hip rafters into place once the ridge board is firmly in position. When you attach the hip rafters, nail them in place at the bottom first before nailing the top against the ridge beam.

As you attach the hip rafters, attach a ceiling joist next to each one for extra support.[8] Hip rafters are the 4 long, diagonal rafters that attach to the ends of the ridge beam and to the corners of the structure.

It depends on the roof pitch. Use a quality carpenter’s square and refer to the table inscribed on it (instructions for use of this table are included with any new square).

Expansion foam. You can get it at any hardware store. You can cut/shape it as needed once it has cured. Just spray it in the area you wish to block off until it is filled, let it cure and then clean up any excess.

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A mansard roof is a variation on a hip roof, with two different roof angles, the lower one much steeper than the upper.

Determine the number of plywood sheets you’ll need. Begin by measuring the width and height of each of the 4 sides of the roof. Once you’ve made these measurements, multiply the length of each of the 4 sides by its height to find the area.

Add the areas of all the sides together to calculate the total area of the roof. To find how many plywood sheets you’ll need, measure a sheet of sheathing and multiply its length by its height to find the area.

Finally, divide the area of the whole roof by the area of one plywood sheet to figure out the number of sheets you’ll need.[11] For example, say that 2 of the sides of your hip roof measure 6 feet (1.

8 m), 2 sides measure 10 feet (3.0 m), and the roof is 3 feet (0.91 m) high. The total length is then 32 feet (9.8 m), and the total area of the roof is 96 square feet (8.9 m2). Then, if the plywood sheets are each 20 square feet (1.

9 m2), divide 96 by 20 to calculate that you’ll need 4.8 sheets of plywood. If the final calculation doesn’t result in a whole number, round up to the nearest whole number. In our example, you’d need to purchase 5 sheets.

To build a hip roof, start by measuring the width and height of the building you’re putting the roof on. Then, enter those measurements into an online roofing calculator to determine how long each common rafter will need to be. Next, once you know the lengths of the rafters, cut some wooden planks to size and make birdsmouth cuts in each one so the rafters are able to connect to the tops of the walls. Once you’ve done that, assemble the rafters and nail them into place to make the frame of the roof. Finally, nail plywood to the frame and attach shingles to finish the roof.

Suggested materials: Hip roofs, like gable roofs, can be covered with almost any type of roofing material, such as shingles, metal, slate or tiles.

Hip roofs can offer extra living space when a dormer crow’s nest is added to a hip roof.

Pros: Gable roofs will easily shed water and snow, provide more space for the attic or vaulted ceilings and allow more ventilation. Their simple design makes them easier to build and cheaper than more complex designs.

Nail the rest of the common rafters to the ridge beam. Measure carefully so that each common rafter is spaced exactly 20 inches (51 cm) from the adjacent common rafters. The common rafters and ridge beam should now stand solidly on their own.

[9] Most hip roofs only have 1 common rafter on the side of the roof built off of the short walls.

Measure the building to calculate the length of your rafters. For a quick and easy approach, measure the width and height of all 4 walls using a laser distance measuring device. To use the tool, simple point it at 1 end of a wall and click the button.

Then point it at the far end of the same wall, and push the button again to see the measured distance.[1] If you don’t have a laser distance measuring device, you can use an ordinary tape measure to find the dimensions of your building’s walls.

You can purchase a laser distance measuring device (and a tape measure) at a large hardware store. If you already know the measurements of the building (e.g., if it’s a small shed that you built), you can skip this step.

Suggested materials: Gabled roofs can be covered with almost any type of material including asphalt shingles, cedar shakes, Terra Cotta tiles, metal, and clay or concrete tiles. However, if the gable roof also contains a dormer, hips and valleys, it should either be shingled or roofed with metal shingles or standing seam to help prevent any future roof leaks. A proper flashing of valleys and end-walls around the dormer, if there is one, is also an absolute must.

Another variation is the gablet (UK terminology) or Dutch gable roof (U.S. and Australasian terminology), which has a hip with a small gable (the gablet) above it. This type simplifies the construction of the roof; no girder trusses are required, but it still has level walls and consistent eaves.

Are you in the process of designing or building a new house or framing a roof? If so, chances are you are considering one of the two most popular roof types in the US; hip & gable.

Hip roofs are more difficult to construct than a gabled roof, requiring more complex systems of rafters or trusses. Hip roofs can be constructed on a wide variety of plan shapes. Each ridge is central over the rectangle of the building below it. The triangular faces of the roof are called the hip ends, and they are bounded by the hips themselves. The “hips” and hip rafters sit on an external corner of the building and rise to the ridge. Where the building has an internal corner, a valley makes the join between the sloping surfaces. They have the advantage of giving a compact, solid appearance to a structure. The roof pitch (slope) may vary.

Half Hipped: A standard hip roof that has two sides shortened to create eaves.

This will depend on the length of the rafters. Consult the span tables.

Cons: Gable roofs can be problematic in high wind and hurricane-prone areas. If the frames are not properly constructed with adequate supports, the roof can collapse due to strong winds. High winds can also cause materials to peel away from gable roofs. If there is too much of an overhang, winds can create an uplift underneath and cause the roof to detach from the walls.

This guide will help you decide between a hip and gable roof for your new house, or an existing roof re-framing project. – Read on to learn more about the pros and cons of each roof type, and find out which one is a more appropriate choice for your needs:

Cut the common rafters to length using a round saw. Use the first rafter as a pattern for the rest. Use a round saw to cut the same patterns from the rest of the rafters. You should have enough common rafters so that there is one every 20 inches (51 cm) along the walls of the house.

To figure how many rafters you’ll need, measure the length of the 4 walls and divide the total length in inches by 20.

This entry was posted in Roof Types on April 26, 2017 by The Roof Guy. Post navigation ← Solar Power for Homes: PV Solar Panels vs. Solar Shingles 2018 Tesla Solar Roof Cost: Solar Glass Shingles & Tiles →

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Italiano: Costruire un Tetto a Padiglione, Deutsch: Ein Walmdach bauen, Português: Construir um Telhado de Quatro Águas, Français: construire un toit à deux croupes, Español: construir un techo a cuatro aguas

Note: For high wind areas, or strong storms, a pitch of 4/12-6/12 (18.5°-26.5° angle) is recommended.

Dutch Gable Roof: A Dutch gable is a hybrid of the gable and hip roof. A gable roof is placed at the top of a hip roof for more space and enhanced aesthetic appeal.

Mark the location where you’ll cut each of the common rafters. Using a carpenter’s framing square, mark the angled plumb line with a pencil at the end of a wood plank to find the place where you’ll make the ridge cut (the cut at the top of the rafter).

Then, use your pencil to make a mark at the framing square’s 1 ft (0.30 m) notch. Mark this increment on each rafter.[3] Common rafters are those which run from the top of the wall to the top of the roof and connect to the ridge beam.

Cross Hipped: Similar to a cross gable roof. Use separate hip roofs on homes with different wings. The line where the two roofs meet is called a valley.

Pros: Hip roofs are more stable than gable roofs. The inward slope of all four sides is what makes it more sturdy and durable.

1 Construction 2 Use 3 Advantages and disadvantages 4 Variants 4.1 Mansard roof 4.2 Tented roof 4.3 Gablet roof or Dutch gable 4.4 Half-hip roof 4.5 Pavilion roof 4.6 Rhenish helm or Helm roof 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

A hip roof on a varied plan, “h” denotes a hip, “v” denotes a valley

To find the length of the ridge you measure the length and width of the building to and from the building line. Subtract the shorter wall length from the longer wall length and add 1.5 inches for the ridge beam.

Nail the jack rafters to the hip rafters and secure them to the walls. Depending on the size of the roof, most hip roofs will have 4-6 short jack rafters that are spaced out every 20 inches (51 cm) between the hip rafters and the king common rafters.

Measure the distance between the angled hip rafter and the top of the wall at 20 in (51 cm) increments and cut jack rafters to fit. Then use your nail gun to attach the jack rafters to the hip rafter and wall.

[10] Jack rafters run from the top of the structure’s wall to the angled hip rafter, parallel to the common rafters.

Is there a standard ratio by which to calculate the length of the ridge beam?

I have seen this done in older buildings where ceiling joists are put in place on the wall head; the bottom side of the common rafters are then fixed to the ceiling joists and the space between the joists/rafters is filled in with brick, mortar, cement etc.

Make sure to use the correct damp-proof course to create a barrier between the timber and the cement. Alternatively, a wall plate/headbinder could be fixed around the head of the wall and then doubled up, allowing an easier fixing for ceiling joists, rafters, joist hangers, etc.

Simple Hip: The most common type of a hip roof. It has a polygon on two sides and a triangle on two other sides. The sides come together at the top to form a simple ridge.

A hip roof construction in Northern Australia showing multinail truss construction. The blue pieces are roll-formed metal roof battens or purlins

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Figure the length of the plywood and appropriate that to the square footage of the house.

A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak or intersection.

A pointed roof seen on a spire or a tower, oriented so that it has four gable ends. See Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Sompting, Speyer Cathedral, or Limburg Cathedral.

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The types of rafters used in a hip roof include common, jack, hip, and ridge beam rafters. The ridge beam runs along horizontally along the top of the roof and is supported by the other rafters. The 4 hip rafters begin at the 4 corners of the roof and connect to the ridge beam.

Common rafters are the uncut, full-length rafters that provide the majority of the roof’s structure and attach to the ridge board. Remember to subtract the size of the beams when making all your measurements so your hip rafters do not run from the walls to the top of the roof, but from the walls to the bottom of the ridge board.

Attach the 6 king common rafters at the end of the ridge board. King common rafters keep the ridge board steady in place. Nail one rafter on each side of the hip roof to brace the ridge board in place.

Then, nail the king rafters in place against the ridge board. King common rafters are the common rafters closest to the hip rafters. There are 6 of these rafters on every hip roof. King common rafters are structurally identical to the other common rafters.

A hip roof on a square structure typically found topping gazebos and other pavilion structures, also known as a pyramid roof.

Note: Valleys can allow water to pool. Proper waterproofing is a must.

Attach asphalt shingles or other desired roofing material. Many homes have asphalt shingles that are made from fiberglass and asphalt. These are the easiest and cheapest shingles to install. Plan to use at least 3 packages of shingles, and also a roll of underlayment and a roll of flashing.

You’ll use asphalt cement to hold the shingles in place and prevent water from leaking into the interior of the building. You can purchase asphalt shingles and other roofing materials at a local hardware store or home-improvement store.

There’s this formula to figure out how much plywood you will need. Add the areas of all the sides together to get the total area of the roof. Measure a sheet of plywood sheathing and multiply its length by its height.

Divide the area of the whole roof by the area of one plywood sheet to figure out the number of sheets you’ll need.

Every 4 inches or to your local building code specifications. Be sure to consult your building code as to what type of fastener is required or recommended (ring shank, screw nails, etc.).

Crossed Gable: A crossed gable roof is two gable roof sections put together at the right angle. The two ridges are perpendicular to each other. Lengths, pitches or heights may or may not differ from each other.

Any roof which has 4 sides, all of which slope upwards to meet at a seam at the top of the roof, is a hip roof. It is perhaps one of the simplest styles of roofing, and is often combined with gables or other features. Hip roofs drain water well, and leaves don’t build up on them. While it’s common to build hip roofs from trusses or premade frames, it is possible to build your own hip roof. Begin by measuring and cutting the wood, then move on to installing the rafters and sheathing.

Yes, if the common rafters are 10 feet or longer it is a good idea to put collar ties on.

Note: Proper construction and roof system maintenance is a must to prevent minor issues from turning into major problems.

A half-hip, clipped-gable or jerkin head roof has a gable, but the upper point of the gable is replaced by a small hip, squaring off the top of the gable. The lower edge of the half-hip may have a gutter which leads back on to the remainder of the roof on one or both sides. Both the gablet roof and the half-hipped roof are intermediate between the gabled and fully hipped types: the gablet roof has a gable above a hip, while a half-hipped roof has a hip above a gable.

Note: It is recommended to use at least a 10/12 pitch, or 40° angle, for snowy regions.

How much and what materials do I need to build a 13×13 hip roof?

Cons: Hip roofs are more expensive to build than a gable roof. It’s a more complex design that requires more building materials. Also, if there are dormers built into the overall design of a hip roof, the additional seams and valleys can make it easier for potential water leaks to occur around dormers, if the roofing system is not properly installed or if the end-walls of a dormer are not properly flashed.

See also[edit] Domestic roof construction Finial, or hip-knob References[edit] External links[edit] Hip Roof – Encyclopædia Britannica Hip Roof layout Roofs and roofing Hip roof geometry. Google SketchUp 3D model where each roof member and bevel can be interrogated

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