Architecture Construction Complex

November 25, 2018 5:38 am by zionstar
Construction of sportif complex in valenton
Aedas said the gallery building at the world centre is designed to be seductive with a strong visual impact aedas
Architecture Construction Complex
Combining modern and country home plans can imply combining rustic materials corresponding to slate flooring, uncovered ceiling beams, and kitchens with contemporary chrome steel home equipment , plastic laminated cabinets , glass shelving and butcher block countertops. The final result`s a contemporary kitchen which is serviceable and has a cozy , rustic feel. Contemporary design is about smooth surfaces similar to glass and chrome steel , and using daring colors.

Before we go all the way down to the actual theme of latest house plans, you could know the basic options of a modern household. For starters contemporary house plan has large home windows to supply a light-weight and comfortable environment, high ceilings, flexible and steady ground plan to accommodate modern furniture and fixtures; and utilization of modern supplies, akin to glass, steel , vinyl, stone, marble, and so on.

Home designs are highly effective symbols that you need to use to create a press release to the world on who you are. Buildings have a protracted lifespan and can continue communicating your assertion to the world lengthy after your departure. House designs are additionally a mark of self-actualization.

Mid-Century Fashionable house plans are rising in popularity from New York to LA and in all places in between. These plans embrace historic Eichler designs from the 1960s, as well as current home plans impressed by the long-lasting `Case Study ` modern houses in Los Angeles of the late 1940s and early 1950s. Led by Dwell journal , the mid century aesthetic of open plans, massive windows and minimal detailing is rising as one of many key design traits of the early 21st century.
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Lieu de travail
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In architecture, the finished work is expensive and time consuming, so it is important to resolve the design as fully as possible before construction work begins. Complex modern buildings involve a large team of different specialist disciplines, and communication at the early design stages is essential to keep the design moving towards a coordinated outcome.[12] Architects (and other designers) start investigating a new design with sketches and diagrams, to develop a rough design that provides an adequate response to the particular design problems.[citation needed]

Perspective in drawing is an approximate representation on a flat surface of an image as it is perceived by the eye. The key concepts here are:

Traditionally, working drawings would typically combine plans, sections, elevations and some details to provide a complete explanation of a building on one sheet. That was possible because little detail was included, the building techniques involved being common knowledge amongst building professionals. Modern working drawings are much more detailed and it is standard practice to isolate each view on a separate sheet. Notes included on drawings are brief, referring to standardised specification documents for more information. Understanding the layout and construction of a modern building involves studying an often-sizeable set of drawings and documents.

“The desire for lower carbon alternatives to traditional materials is a real driver in the market,” says Robert Kilgour, principal engineer in materials technology for WSP in Perth, Western Australia. “Geopolymer concrete is not exactly new, but it’s only in the past three years that it has been made in commercial quantities. I think we’ll be seeing a lot more of it in the near future.”

Reprographics or reprography covers a variety of technologies, media, and support services used to make multiple copies of original drawings. Prints of architectural drawings are still sometimes called blueprints, after one of the early processes which produced a white line on blue paper. The process was superseded by the dye-line print system which prints black on white coated paper (Whiteprint). The standard modern processes are the ink-jet printer, laser printer and photocopier, of which the ink-jet and laser printers are commonly used for large-format printing. Although colour printing is now commonplace, it remains expensive above A3 size, and architect’s working drawings still tend to adhere to the black and white / greyscale aesthetic.

One-point perspective where objects facing the viewer are orthogonal, and receding lines converge to a single vanishing point. Two-point perspective reduces distortion by viewing objects at an angle, with all the horizontal lines receding to one of two vanishing points, both located on the horizon.

Three-point perspective introduces additional realism by making the verticals recede to a third vanishing point, which is above or below depending upon whether the view is seen from above or below.

Completely new materials may not come along very often, but scientists are remixing old ones — and it’s changing the shape of our cities

Record drawings are also used in construction projects, where “as-built” drawings of the completed building take account of all the variations made during the course of construction.

An elevation is a view of a building seen from one side, a flat representation of one façade. This is the most common view used to describe the external appearance of a building. Each elevation is labelled in relation to the compass direction it faces, e.g. looking toward the north you would be seeing the southern elevation of the building.[5] Buildings are rarely a simple rectangular shape in plan, so a typical elevation may show all the parts of the building that are seen from a particular direction.

But such materials are hardly new, and stronger steel is not necessarily what engineers need, says O’Connor: “It’s not always going to help: sometimes area is part of the structural property you need. And although stronger steel is lighter and easier to handle on site, it does not help with building stiffness.”

A montage image is produced by superimposing a perspective image of a building on to a photographic background. Care is needed to record the position from which the photograph was taken, and to generate the perspective using the same viewpoint. This technique is popular in computer visualisation, where the building can be photorealistically rendered, and the final image is intended to be almost indistinguishable from a photograph.

Phase-change materials supply thermal mass to lightweight structures

In most concrete, explains Ulm, the carbon-expensive calcium content is not fully utilized. By nano-engineering the cement, with the addition of silica fume (and other industrial waste products), the calcium can be more comprehensively activated, making the cement much stronger. “The same approach was taken to create the Gorilla Glass in an iPhone,” he says. “By putting calcium and silica at exactly the positions where we need them, much more of the calcium contributes to the strength and durability of the cement and, therefore, the concrete. And if the concrete is twice as strong you have the potential to use half as much, and decrease the carbon footprint by up to 50%.”

Lightweight steel or timber structures might be easy to handle and quick to build, but they come with a problem: they cannot compete with heavier concrete when it comes to thermal mass.

Site plans are commonly used to represent a building proposal prior to detailed design: drawing up a site plan is a tool for deciding both the site layout and the size and orientation of proposed new buildings. A site plan is used to verify that a proposal complies with local development codes, including restrictions on historical sites. In this context the site plan forms part of a legal agreement, and there may be a requirement for it to be drawn up by a licensed professional: architect, engineer, landscape architect or land surveyor.[4]

A site plan is a specific type of plan, showing the whole context of a building or group of buildings. A site plan shows property boundaries and means of access to the site, and nearby structures if they are relevant to the design. For a development on an urban site, the site plan may need to show adjoining streets to demonstrate how the design fits into the urban fabric. Within the site boundary, the site plan gives an overview of the entire scope of work. It shows the buildings (if any) already existing and those that are proposed, usually as a building footprint; roads, parking lots, footpaths, hard landscaping, trees and planting. For a construction project, the site plan also needs to show all the services connections: drainage and sewer lines, water supply, electrical and communications cables, exterior lighting etc.

So the accelerating urbanization of the world, and the spectacular architecture mushrooming across all inhabited continents, has been achieved using only these basic elements. And improvements in building safety, usability and durability, as well as speed, efficiency and economy have, like the height of skyscrapers, been made possible not by astonishing leaps in materials science, but by incremental advances, subtle adjustments and improved understanding.

Three New York Skyscrapers That Wouldn’t Exist Without High-strength Concrete

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Three-point perspective gives a casual, photographic snapshot effect. In professional architectural photography, conversely, a view camera or a perspective control lens is used to eliminate the third vanishing point, so that all the verticals are vertical on the photograph, as with the perspective convention. This can also be done by digital manipulation of a photograph taken with a standard lens.

The basic categorization of artificial perspective is by the number of vanishing points:

Location drawings, also called general arrangement drawings, include floor plans, sections and elevations: they show where the construction elements are located. Assembly drawings show how the different parts are put together.

For example, a wall detail will show the layers that make up the construction, how they are fixed to structural elements, how to finish the edges of openings, and how prefabricated components are to be fitted.

Component drawings enable self-contained elements e.g. windows and doorsets, to be fabricated in a workshop, and delivered to site complete and ready for installation. Larger components may include roof trusses, cladding panels, cupboards and kitchens.

Complete rooms, especially hotel bedrooms and bathrooms, may be made as prefabricated pods complete with internal decorations and fittings.

High-strength concrete mixes like this have also played an enabling role in the recent trend for super-skinny residential skyscrapers. Several in the US, Dubai and the Far East are over 1,000ft (305m) high, their slender designs offering spectacular views, along with impressive footprint-to-floorspace ratios.

The development of the computer had a major impact on the methods used to design and create technical drawings,[1] making manual drawing almost obsolete, and opening up new possibilities of form using organic shapes and complex geometry. Today the vast majority of drawings are created using CAD software.[2]

Architectural model Copyright in architecture in the United States Drawing Engineering drawing Layers in a standard architectural drawing Linear scale List of museums with major collections of European prints and drawings Museum for Architectural Drawing, Berlin, Germany Multiview orthographic projection Preservation: Library and Archival Science Technical drawing

An alternative system popular in Australia, BioPCM uses vegetable fats encapsulated in a copolymer film — a little like oil-filled bubble wrap — which can be placed in ceilings and walls. Its manufacturer claims that BioPCM can absorb 40 times more heat per gram than concrete.

The materials scientist is the designer’s friend. These questing chemists, using ever more sophisticated techniques, produce a steady flow of new and improved substances with which to create the built environment.

Colen Campbell’s Vitruvius Brittanicus, illustrations of English buildings by Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher Wren, as well as Campbell himself and other prominent architects of the era. The Survey of London, founded in 1894 by Charles Robert Ashbee and now available through English Heritage.

A record of notable streets and individual buildings in the former County of London. Historic American Buildings Survey, records of notable buildings drawn up during the 1930s Depression, this collection is held by the Library of Congress and is available copyright-free on the internet.

The axonometric view is not readily generated by CAD programmes which create views from a three dimensional model. Consequently, it is now rarely used.

One of timber’s most important qualities, Rönnblom says, is that it is light, so foundations can be smaller and therefore cheaper and quicker to lay. “You can also put timber buildings in places where concrete would be unsuitable — in soft ground, for example. Timber lends itself to prefabrication, and it is easy to handle on site, so you can build quickly and efficiently.”

Historically, architects have made record drawings in order to understand and emulate the great architecture known to them. In the Renaissance, architects from all over Europe studied and recorded the remains of the Roman and Greek civilizations, and used these influences to develop the architecture of the period. Records are made both individually, for local purposes, and on a large scale for publication. Historic surveys worth referring to include:

Concrete Play-Doh Overcomes ‘Square Thinking’ Smart Dynamic Casting could be faster than 3D-printing concrete, with the creation of columns at a… Read More

Last but not least, Rönnblom says, people enjoy inhabiting timber buildings: “They feel nice, and have pleasant acoustics.” This makes them a desirable proposition for housing, and also for commercial projects where a growing body of research is linking the productivity of employees to their comfort and contentment with the working environment.

“Engineering timber in this way removes natural variations and makes its properties much more consistent and predictable,” explains Rönnblom. “And because we have had substantial buildings to monitor for over a decade now, we know how engineered timber structures perform in wind, in fire, and we know about their stiffness and their dynamic properties.” This is enabling the design of taller timber structures, although the tallest complete pure timber structure is still only 14 storeys.

Developments in the 20th century included the parallel motion drawing board, as well as more complex improvements on the basic T-square. The development of reliable technical drawing pens allowed for faster draughting and stencilled lettering. Letraset dry transfer lettering and half-tone sheets were popular from the 1970s until[when?] computers made those processes obsolete.[citation needed]

The axonometric gained in popularity in the twentieth century, not just as a convenient diagram but as a formal presentation technique, adopted in particular by the Modern Movement.[6] Axonometric drawings feature prominently in the influential 1970’s drawings of Michael Graves, James Stirling and others, using not only straightforward views but worms-eye view, unusually and exaggerated rotations of the plan, and exploded elements.[10]

A sectional elevation is a combination of a cross section, with elevations of other parts of the building seen beyond the section plane.

Isometric and axonometric projections are a simple way of representing a three dimensional object, keeping the elements to scale and showing the relationship between several sides of the same object, so that the complexities of a shape can be clearly understood.

It sounds amazing, but at the moment few plants can produce it and use has been limited to one-off designs and a small number of bridges, some of which Ulm has helped design. It has not yet been used for skyscrapers. “The product design is ready, but to make it widely available in commercial qualities would require investment in plant,” says Ulm, “A carbon tax on concrete, for example, would immediately make it viable for producers to do that.”

A lot of benefits, then, from just a tweak to the mix, and a huge impact environmentally and architecturally. But talk to experts in this field and it quickly becomes apparent that there are plenty more developments in the pipeline.

Two point perspective, interior of Dercy House by Robert Adam, 1777.

1 Size and scale 2 Standard views used in architectural drawing 2.1 Floor plan 2.2 Site plan 2.3 Elevation 2.4 Cross section 2.5 Isometric and axonometric projections 2.6 Detail drawings 3 Architectural perspective 4 Sketches and diagrams 5 Types 5.

1 Presentation drawings 5.2 Survey drawings 5.3 Record drawings 5.4 Working drawings 6 Drafting 6.1 CGI and computer-aided design 7 Architectural reprographics 8 See also 9 References

Detail drawings show a small part of the construction at a larger scale, to show how the component parts fit together. They are also used to show small surface details, for example decorative elements. Section drawings at large scale are a standard way of showing building construction details, typically showing complex junctions (such as floor to wall junction, window openings, eaves and roof apex) that cannot be clearly shown on a drawing that includes the full height of the building. A full set of construction details needs to show plan details as well as vertical section details. One detail is seldom produced in isolation: a set of details shows the information needed to understand the construction in three dimensions. Typical scales for details are 1/10, 1/5 and full size.

In fact, says Rönnblom, fears over fire safety are more to do with perception than fact. “Put glulam on a fire and it is quite difficult to get it to burn out completely,” he says. “It is also very predictable, charring at 1mm per minute, with the strength of the timber behind largely unaffected. It makes it predictable, easy to calculate and in many ways it performs better than concrete or steel.”

A sketch is a rapidly executed freehand drawing, a quick way to record and develop an idea, not intended as a finished work. A diagram could also be drawn freehand but deals with symbols, to develop the logic of a design. Both can be worked up into a more presentable form and used to communicate the principles of a design.[citation needed]

The Global Change Institute at the University of Queensland is a zero-energy, zero-carbon workplace, designed by Hassell. It’s the world’s first public building to use structural geopolymer concrete, in which Portland cement is completely replaced by industrial by-products, greatly lowering the associated emissions and embodied energy

Building information modeling (BIM) is the logical development of CAD drawing, a relatively new technology but fast becoming mainstream. The design team collaborates to create a three-dimensional computer model, and all plans and other two-dimensional views are generated directly from the model, ensuring spatial consistency. The key innovation here is to share the model via the internet, so that all the design functions (site survey, architecture, structure and services) can be integrated into a single model, or as a series of models associated with each specialism that are shared throughout the design development process. Some form of management, not necessarily by the architect, needs to be in place to resolve conflicting priorities. The starting point of BIM is spatial design, but it also enables components to be quantified and scheduled directly from the information embedded in the model.[citation needed]

In essence, structural steel’s range of properties has already been largely assimilated and deployed in building design, and the impact of any incremental improvements is not likely to have much effect on what buildings look like or how they are built.

The size of drawings reflects the materials available and the size that is convenient to transport – rolled up or folded, laid out on a table, or pinned up on a wall. The draughting process may impose limitations on the size that is realistically workable. Sizes are determined by a consistent paper size system, according to local usage. Normally the largest paper size used in modern architectural practice is ISO A0 (841 mm × 1,189 mm or 33.1 in × 46.8 in) or in the USA Arch E (762 mm × 1,067 mm or 30 in × 42 in) or Large E size (915 mm × 1,220 mm or 36 in × 48 in).[3]

It is now possible, for example, to specify concrete that heals its own cracks by means of limestone-attracting bacteria; concrete that uses magnesium oxide to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere; and even concrete that glows in the dark. Time will tell which of these reaches the mainstream, but one variation is already attracting serious attention: geopolymer concrete.

Founded by Principal Architect Damen L. Leone, AIA; BTL focuses on renovations, additions, new construction of residential and commercial. We pride ourselves on experience and various project delivery methods such as design-build, and design bid build.

With a wide range of experience in building industry BTL can help you, from the most basic to most complex design and construction needs.

There is some confusion about the terms isometric and axonometric. “Axonometric is a word that has been used by architects for hundreds of years. Engineers use the word axonometric as a generic term to include isometric, diametric and trimetric drawings.”[6] This article uses the terms in the architecture-specific sense.

There is one market in particular for which engineered timber would seem well placed, as WSP‘s Robert Kilgour points out: “The trend in big cities is towards densification — squeezing more and more accommodation onto land that is already built.” The lightweight nature of CLT makes it ideal for building extensions because it reduces the modifications you have to make to the existing structure.”

Is CLT The Answer For Seismic Zones? New-generation timber-framed buildings have properties that make them ideal for surviving earthquakes. Read More

Thermal mass can be desirable because, when combined with night ventilation, it absorbs excess heat during the day and releases it overnight, thereby moderating the diurnal temperature range and reducing demand for both heating and air-conditioning.

This section deals with the conventional views used to represent a building or structure. See the Types of architectural drawing section below for drawings classified according to their purpose.

Aerial perspective is a technique in painting, for indicating distance by approximating the effect of the atmosphere on distant objects. In daylight, as an ordinary object gets further from the eye, its contrast with the background is reduced, its colour saturation is reduced, and its colour becomes more blue. Not to be confused with aerial view or bird’s eye view, which is the view as seen (or imagined) from a high vantage point. In J M Gandy’s perspective of the Bank of England (see illustration at the beginning of this article), Gandy portrayed the building as a picturesque ruin in order to show the internal plan arrangement, a precursor of the cutaway view.[11]

“The difference now,” says Viktor Rönnblom, structural engineer and timber specialist in WSP’s Skellefteå office in northern Sweden, “is that we know much more about how it can be used and how it performs.” This also applies to other engineered timber products, he says, mainly glulam (glued laminated timber) and laminated veneer lumber, he adds.

Geometrically, an elevation is a horizontal orthographic projection a building on to a vertical plane, the vertical plane normally being parallel to one side of the building.

Phase-change materials potentially offer the best of both worlds: relatively lightweight structures with high thermal mass. The trick is made possible by the fact that PCMs change from solid to liquid as temperatures rise, and then back to solid again overnight — the phase change absorbing and then releasing large amounts of energy.

Geometrically, a cross section is a horizontal orthographic projection of a building on to a vertical plane, with the vertical plane cutting through the building.

A comprehensive set of drawings used in a building construction project: these will include not only architect’s drawings but structural and services engineer’s drawings etc. Working drawings logically subdivide into location, assembly and component drawings.[9]

Architectural drawing combining elevation, section and plan: drawings by Willey Reveley of Jeremy Bentham’s proposal for a Panopticon prison, 1791.

See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Architectural drawings.

Further increases in height will inevitably be incremental, says Rönnblom. “The way to go is to build, evaluate, and then maybe add five storeys to the next design, and so on. I don’t think you should jump from 15 to 40 storeys. The effects of any miscalculation could grow exponentially.”

Professional CAD software such as AutoCAD is complex and requires both training and experience before the operator becomes fully productive. Consequently, skilled CAD operators are often divorced from the design process. Simpler software such as SketchUp and Vectorworks allows for more intuitive drawing and is intended as a design tool.[citation needed]

Measured drawings of existing land, structures and buildings. Architects need an accurate set of survey drawings as a basis for their working drawings, to establish exact dimensions for the construction work. Surveys are usually measured and drawn up by specialist land surveyors.

Tallwood House, a student residence in Vancouver, has a hybrid structure with 17 storeys of CLT floors supported on glulam columns on top of a concrete base. Construction was completed in nine weeks by just ten workers

More revolutionary is a renewed interest in timber as a structural material, and particularly in engineered products such as cross-laminated timber. CLT was developed around 15 years ago, and although there have been small improvements in the machinery and glues used in the laminating process, the basic product remains the same.

The normal convention in architectural perspective is to use two-point perspective, with all the verticals drawn as verticals on the page.

An isometric uses a plan grid at 30 degrees from the horizontal in both directions, which distorts the plan shape. Isometric graph paper can be used to construct this kind of drawing. This view is useful to explain construction details (e.

g. three dimensional joints in joinery). The isometric was the standard view until the mid twentieth century, remaining popular until the 1970s, especially for textbook diagrams and illustrations.[7][8] Cabinet projection is similar, but only one axis is skewed, the others being horizontal and vertical.

Originally used in cabinet making, the advantage is that a principal side (e.g. a cabinet front) is displayed without distortion, so only the less important sides are skewed. The lines leading away from the eye are drawn at a reduced scale to lessen the degree of distortion.

The cabinet projection is seen in Victorian engraved advertisements and architectural textbooks,[7] but has virtually disappeared from general use. An axonometric uses a 45 degree plan grid, which keeps the original orthogonal geometry of the plan.

The great advantage of this view for architecture is that the draughtsman can work directly from a plan, without having to reconstruct it on a skewed grid. In theory the plan should be set at 45 degrees, but this introduces confusing coincidences where opposite corners align.

Unwanted effects can be avoided by rotating the plan while still projecting vertically. This is sometimes called a planometric or plan oblique view,[9] and allows freedom to choose any suitable angle to present the most useful view of an object.

CLT has been described as “plywood on steroids” and it is formed in a similar way, from alternately oriented sheets of timber. Glulam, used more for beams and columns, is again similar but the grain in the strips is aligned. LVL uses thinner, veneer cuts with occasional cross layers.

BTL architecture can help you follow all the steps needed to make your project successful.

Computer-aided design is the use of computer software to create drawings. Today the vast majority of technical drawings of all kinds are made using CAD. Instead of drawing lines on paper, the computer records equivalent information electronically. There are many advantages to this system: repetition is reduced because complex elements can be copied, duplicated and stored for re-use. Errors can be deleted, and the speed of draughting allows many permutations to be tried before the design is finalised. On the other hand, CAD drawing encourages a proliferation of detail and increased expectations of accuracy, aspects which reduce the efficiency originally expected from the move to computerisation.[citation needed]

Computer generated perspective of the Moscow School of Management, by David Adjaye.

Only 15 years ago, 8,000psi concrete was considered high strength. Now most tall projects in the US use concrete of between 10,000 to 14,000psi for at least part of their structure, thanks to the development of reliable water-reducing admixtures. The effect on the skyline has been dramatic.

Tall Timber: How High Can CLT Go? Timber could be an alternative to concrete when building high. Being lighter than concrete, it also… Read More

Despite fairly complex geometrical explanations, for the purposes of practical draughting the difference between isometric and axonometric is simple (see diagram above). In both, the plan is drawn on a skewed or rotated grid, and the verticals are projected vertically on the page. All lines are drawn to scale so that relationships between elements are accurate. In many cases a different scale is required for different axes, and again this can be calculated but in practice was often simply estimated by eye.

Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, so that relative sizes are correctly represented. The scale is chosen both to ensure the whole building will fit on the chosen sheet size, and to show the required amount of detail. At the scale of one eighth of an inch to one foot (1:96) or the metric equivalent 1 to 100, walls are typically shown as simple outlines corresponding to the overall thickness. At a larger scale, half an inch to one foot (1:24) or the nearest common metric equivalent 1 to 20, the layers of different materials that make up the wall construction are shown. Construction details are drawn to a larger scale, in some cases full size (1 to 1 scale).

Scale drawings enable dimensions to be “read” off the drawing, i.e. measured directly. Imperial scales (feet and inches) are equally readable using an ordinary ruler. On a one-eighth inch to one foot scale drawing, the one-eighth divisions on the ruler can be read off as feet. Architects normally use a scale ruler with different scales marked on each edge. A third method, used by builders in estimating, is to measure directly off the drawing and multiply by the scale factor.

WSP is currently advising an Australian client on adding a ten-storey extension to a six-storey block, he adds. “We are looking at how the timber will perform structurally and what would have to be done to connect it effectively to the existing structure. In this sort of situation, the lightness of engineered timber, along with the potential for rapid construction, makes it an attractive option as cities continue to densify.”

Traditional draughting techniques used 30–60 and 45 degree set squares, and that determined the angles used in these views. Once the adjustable square became common those limitations were lifted.

Diagrams are mainly used to resolve practical matters. In the early phases of the design architects use diagrams to develop, explore, and communicate ideas and solutions. They are essential tools for thinking, problem solving, and communication in the design disciplines. Diagrams can be used to resolve spatial relationships, but they can also represent forces and flows, e.g. the forces of sun and wind, or the flows of people and materials through a building.[15]

An architectural drawing or architect’s drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are used by architects and others for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, and to make a record of a building that already exists.

An exploded view diagram shows component parts dis-assembled in some way, so that each can be seen on its own. These views are common in technical manuals, but are also used in architecture, either in conceptual diagrams or to illustrate technical details. In a cutaway view parts of the exterior are omitted to show the interior, or details of internal construction.[16] Although common in technical illustration, including many building products and systems, the cutaway is in fact little-used in architectural drawing.[citation needed]

The key benefit of geopolymer concrete is that it does not contain any Portland cement at all, and therefore has a much lower carbon footprint than traditional concrete. Its availability in Australia has seen it specified for a range of applications, though its adoption is as yet relatively limited.

Beyond Cement: Geopolymer Concrete What’s different about geopolymer concrete is that it uses no Portland cement at all, and therefore… Read More

But despite their best efforts, game-changing breakthroughs in materials are rare. Brick, stone and timber have been used in construction for at least 7,000 years. Kiln-fired bricks have been around for 4,000 years; concrete since Roman times. Even the most recent quantum leap — the advent of structural steel — occurred more than a century ago.

A cross section, also simply called a section, represents a vertical plane cut through the object, in the same way as a floor plan is a horizontal section viewed from the top. In the section view, everything cut by the section plane is shown as a bold line, often with a solid fill to show objects that are cut through, and anything seen beyond generally shown in a thinner line. Sections are used to describe the relationship between different levels of a building. In the Observatorium drawing illustrated here, the section shows the dome which can be seen from the outside, a second dome that can only be seen inside the building, and the way the space between the two accommodates a large astronomical telescope: relationships that would be difficult to understand from plans alone.

There are two basic elements to a building design, the aesthetic and the practical. The aesthetic element includes the layout and visual appearance, the anticipated feel of the materials, and cultural references that will influence the way people perceive the building. Practical concerns include space allocated for different activities, how people enter and move around the building, daylight and artificial lighting, acoustics, traffic noise, legal matters and building codes, and many other issues. While both aspects are partly a matter of customary practice, every site is different. Many architects actively seek innovation, thereby increasing the number of problems to be resolved.[citation needed]

A floor plan is the most fundamental architectural diagram, a view from above showing the arrangement of spaces in building in the same way as a map, but showing the arrangement at a particular level of a building. Technically it is a horizontal section cut through a building (conventionally at four feet / one metre and twenty centimetres above floor level), showing walls, windows and door openings and other features at that level. The plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level: the floor, stairs (but only up to the plan level), fittings and sometimes furniture. Objects above the plan level (e.g. beams overhead) can be indicated as dashed lines.

Height is not everything. Rönnblom points out that engineered timber can play different roles in different buildings: “For example, you can use composite CLT-concrete structures. In that case, the CLT is both formwork and part of the load-bearing structure.”

Perspective in the manner of the classic Ideal city by Jean-Max Albert,1977.

The traditional tools of the architect were the drawing board or draughting table, T-square and set squares, protractor, compasses, pencil, and drawing pens of different types.[14] Drawings were made on vellum, coated linen, and tracing paper. Lettering would either be done by hand, mechanically using a stencil, or a combination of the two. Ink lines were drawn with a ruling pen, a relatively sophisticated device similar to a dip-in pen, but with adjustable line width, capable of producing a very fine controlled line width. Ink pens had to be dipped into ink frequently. Draughtsmen worked standing up, keeping the ink on a separate table to avoid spilling ink on the drawing.[citation needed]

But geopolymer alone will not be sufficient to address the global construction sector’s heavy carbon usage. “On average every person on the planet consumes roughly 2m3 of concrete every year, so it is vital we do something to limit the environmental cost,” says Franz-Josef Ulm, faculty director of the Concrete Sustainability Hub at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). “Geopolymer has a part to play, but there is simply not enough of it around to replace that huge dependence on cement. Fortunately, we are developing ways of using cement more efficiently — of making it work harder.”

CAD is used to create all kinds of drawings, from working drawings to photorealistic perspective views. Architectural renderings (also called visualisations) are made by creating a three-dimensional model using CAD. The model can be viewed from any direction to find the most useful viewpoints. Different software (for example Autodesk 3ds Max) is then used to apply colour and texture to surfaces, and to represent shadows and reflections. The result can be accurately combined with photographic elements: people, cars, background landscape.[citation needed]

The almost endless adjustments that can be made to concrete will provide many more options for designers over the next few years. Ulm says that an improved understanding of concrete’s rheology — the way it flows and sets — will open the door to specialist concretes for more effective 3D printing, or even the ability to extrude columns from moving forms.

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In traditional construction, many details were so fully standardised, that few detail drawings were required to construct a building. For example, the construction of a sash window would be left to the carpenter, who would fully understand what was required, but unique decorative details of the facade would be drawn up in detail. In contrast, modern buildings need to be fully detailed because of the proliferation of different products, methods and possible solutions.

Architectural legend often refers to designs made on the back of an envelope/napkin/cigarette packet/bubblegum wrapper.[13] Initial thoughts are important, even if they have to be discarded along the way, because they provide the central idea around which the design can develop.[14] Although a sketch is inaccurate, it is disposable and allows for freedom of thought, for trying different ideas quickly. Choice becomes sharply reduced once the design is committed to a scale drawing, and the sketch stage is almost always essential.[citation needed]

Geometrically, plan view is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on to a horizontal plane, with the horizontal plane cutting through the building.

Dimensions can be measured off drawings made on a stable medium such as vellum. All processes of reproduction introduce small errors, especially now that different copying methods mean that the same drawing may be re-copied, or copies made in several different ways. Consequently, dimensions need to be written (“figured”) on the drawing. The disclaimer “Do not scale off dimensions” is commonly inscribed on architects drawings, to guard against errors arising in the copying process.

Nano-engineered concrete is certainly strong enough to change the way large structures are designed, Ulm says. “Ordinary concrete is measured at 30 megapascals of strength, and the high-strength concrete used in major civil engineering projects such as the Channel Tunnel is 80MPa. This nano-engineered stuff is 200MPa (roughly 29,000psi). It has the strength of mild steel, flows like honey and hardens at room temperature. Add fibres and you can even do away with reinforcement.”

An architectural animation is a short film showing how a proposed building will look: the moving image makes three-dimensional forms much easier to understand. An animation is generated from a series of hundreds or even thousands of still images, each made in the same way as an architectural visualisation. A computer-generated building is created using a CAD programme, and that is used to create more or less realistic views from a sequence of viewpoints. The simplest animations use a moving viewpoint, while more complex animations can include moving objects: people, vehicles, and so on.[citation needed]

There have been advances in steel too, in its weight, strength, workability and resistance to corrosion. “Low-alloy steels, such as those made with a small amount of niobium, can be very strong,” says Mark O’Connor, director of building structures at WSP in London. “If an architect wants slim columns, they can be useful. Extra-strong rebar is useful too as it can be slimmer and fits better in congested areas.”

In any case, it is likely that building regulations will stymie any sudden leap in the height of timber structures. Worldwide, these tend to forbid buildings higher than six or so storeys because of fears over how timber structures will perform in fire. Tallwood House in Vancouver, which has a 17-storey hybrid CLT structure, had to win special dispensation from British Columbia’s Building and Safety Standards Branch — and that was only granted after the designers agreed to enhanced fire and seismic standards that exceeded those for a concrete or steel building. This involved complete encapsulation of most of the CLT and glulam components with three or four layers of fire-rated Type X gypsum board.

His last point is an important one, for no matter how technically advanced a new material is, it will struggle to catch on if clients do not like it, or if it does not sit well with contemporary architectural tastes. Engineered timber is attracting attention as much due to its perceived ecological credentials as its structural capabilities — even though the carbon used in the manufacturing process shouldn’t be overlooked. But no matter. Progress in materials science is never wasted, and an designer can never have too many options.

The tallest building in the US, One World Trade Center, completed in 2013, used a 14,000psi mix to facilitate a less bulky core. As a result, the building has more lettable space, there is a lighter gravitational load and, therefore, less concrete was required for the foundations. And because a significant amount of carbon is used and released in cement manufacture, reducing the amount of concrete meant a smaller carbon footprint overall.

Perspective is the view from a particular fixed viewpoint. Horizontal and vertical edges in the object are represented by horizontals and verticals in the drawing. Lines leading away into the distance appear to converge at a vanishing point.

All horizontals converge to a point on the horizon, which is a horizontal line at eye level. Verticals converge to a point either above or below the horizon.

Until the latter part of the 20th century, all architectural drawings were manually produced, if not by the architects, then by trained (but less skilled) draughtsmen (or drafters), who did not generate the design, but did make many of the less important decisions. This system has continued with CAD draughting: many design architects have little or no knowledge of CAD software programmes, relying upon others to take their designs beyond the sketch stage. Draughtsmen often specialize in a type of structure, such as residential or commercial, or in a type of construction: timber frame, reinforced concrete, prefabrication, etc.[17]

Architectural drawings are produced for a specific purpose, and can be classified accordingly. Several elements are often included on the same sheet, for example a sheet showing a plan together with the principal façade.

Drawings intended to explain a scheme and to promote its merits. Working drawings may include tones or hatches to emphasise different materials, but they are diagrams, not intended to appear realistic. Basic presentation drawings typically include people, vehicles and trees, taken from a library of such images, and are otherwise very similar in style to working drawings. Rendering is the art of adding surface textures and shadows to show the visual qualities of a building more realistically. An architectural illustrator or graphic designer may be employed to prepare specialist presentation images, usually perspectives or highly finished site plans, floor plans and elevations etc.

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In tropical regions, PCMs can be used in a different way: to “store” solar power — particularly in homes that are unoccupied during the day. This is achieved by using “free” solar power to actively chill the empty property and solidify the PCMs in the daytime. They can then maintain the occupied property at a comfortable temperature overnight by passively absorbing heat as they melt, ready to start the process again in the morning.

Architects also use the word elevation as a synonym for façade, so the north elevation is literally the north-facing wall of the building.

Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views (floor plan, section etc.), sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales, annotation and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, and any copies required had to be laboriously made by hand. The twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently.

For example, PCMs were installed during the refurbishment of the historic Somerset House in London, where a lightweight roof structure tended to allow the top floor to overheat in summer. Walls and ceilings have been lined with approximately 1,000m2 of Eco Building Boards’ 14mm clay PCM board, which is “enriched” with 3kg/m2 of Micronal PCM. Produced by BASF, Micronal comprises tiny acrylic glass spheres filled with paraffin wax which melts at around 23°C. It has been successfully incorporated into clay board, plasterboard and even aerated concrete.

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