African Modern Architecture

November 25, 2018 5:37 am by zionstar
The smithsonian national museum of african american history and culture in washington dc usa
Pretorias freedom park designed by mma design studio with gapp architects and mra architects
African Modern Architecture
Combining contemporary and country home plans can mean combining rustic materials comparable to slate flooring, uncovered ceiling beams, and kitchens with contemporary stainless steel appliances , plastic laminated cupboards , glass shelving and butcher block countertops. The final result`s a up to date kitchen which is serviceable and has a comfortable , rustic feel. Modern design is about clean surfaces equivalent to glass and stainless steel , and the use of daring colors.

Before we go down to the actual theme of contemporary house plans, you need to know the essential features of a modern household. For starters up to date house plan has large windows to supply a light-weight and comfy environment, excessive ceilings, flexible and continuous floor plan to accommodate modern furniture and fixtures; and usage of modern supplies, akin to glass, metal , vinyl, stone, marble, and so on.

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Mid-Century Trendy house plans are rising in popularity from New York to LA and all over the place in between. These plans embody historic Eichler designs from the Nineteen Sixties, as well as latest home plans impressed by the enduring `Case Study ` modern houses in Los Angeles of the late Nineteen Forties and early 1950s. Led by Dwell magazine , the mid century aesthetic of open plans, large windows and minimal detailing is rising as one of many key design developments of the early 21st century.
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Mapungubwe is considered the most socially complex society in southern Africa.[citation needed] The first southern African culture to display economic differentiation. The elite was separated on a mountain settlement, made of sandstone. It was the precursor to Great Zimbabwe. Large tracks of dirt was carried to the top of the hill. At the bottom of the hill was a natural amphipheater and at the top elite graveyard. There was only two pathway to the top, one was a narrow steep cleft along the side of the hill which observers at the top had a clear view.

Ancestor figures, carved door frame, and veranda posts on a Bafussam chieftain’s house, Bamileke area, Cameroon grasslands.Photo Hoa-Qui

The Kingdom of Lunda established its capital 100 km from the Kasai River in open woodland, between two rivers 15 km apart. It was surrounded by fortified earthen ramparts. and dry moats. The Mwato Yamvo’s compound was surrounded by large fortifications of double-layered trees or wood ramparts. The musumba had multiple courtyards with designated functions, straight roads, and public squares. Its immense hygienic and cleanly value has been noted by European observers.[33]

Amy Frearson | 22 September 2017 | 7 comments Thomas Heatherwick reveals Zeitz MOCAA art galleries carved out of Cape Town grain silo

Early European colonies developed around the West African coast, building large forts, as can be seen at Elmina Castle, Cape Coast Castle, Christiansborg, Fort Jesus and elsewhere. These were usually plain, with little ornament, but showing more internal creativity at Dixcove Fort. Other embellishments were gradually accreted, with the style inspiring later buildings such as Lamu Fort and the stone palace of Kumasi.

Architecture firms Snøhetta and Local Studio celebrate South African anti-apartheid activist Desmond Tutu with this monumental arch, which was unveiled in downtown Cape Town during this year’s Design Indaba. More

Ecological and demographic factors play an important part in building design. Soil erosion and overgrazing, as well as pressure on land as a result of population growth, have also contributed to migratory movements. The growth of urban centres led to wide-scale migration in the 20th and 21st centuries, and these migrations have had a profound effect on the dispersal of house types.

Stefan Antoni of South African architecture studio SAOTA has refurbished a modernist villa overlooking Cape Town and reorganised its open interior to make it better suited to contemporary living. More

Thomas Heatherwick has created South Africa’s biggest art museum – by hollowing out the inside of a historic grain silo building. More

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Ashanti architecture from Ghana is perhaps best known from the reconstruction at Kumasi. Its key features are courtyard-based buildings, and walls with striking reliefs in mud plaster brightly painted. An example of a shrine can be seen at Bawjiase in Ghana. Four rectangular rooms, constructed from wattle and daub, lie around a courtyard. Animal designs mark the walls, and palm leaves cut to tiered shape provide the roof.

As a consequence of their hunting and gathering economy, the San of the Kalahari move frequently. Some San scherms (shelters) are little more than depressions in the ground, but groups such as the !Kung build light-framed shelters of sticks and saplings covered with grass. Other hunter-gatherers, such as the Hadza of Tanzania, live in dry savanna territory, which contains a wide range of game animals. Their domed dwellings of tied branches are given a thick thatch in winter. Some forest dwellers, such as the Bambuti of the Ituri Forest in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, are also hunter-gatherers. Their similarly constructed temporary shelters are interlaced with crossed sticks, over which mongongo leaves are layered.

Nigeria: architectureClay houses decorated with low-relief ornament and vibrant designs, exhibiting contemporary vernacular architecture in Zaria, Nigeria. (centre right) Frank Willett

Western architecture African literature African art Japanese architecture Egyptian art and architecture African music African theatre African dance Korean architecture Classical architecture

As with most architectural traditions elsewhere, African architecture has been subject to numerous external influences from the earliest periods for which evidence is available. Western architecture has also influenced coastal areas since the late 15th century, and is now an important source for many larger buildings, particularly in major cities.

The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is exceptionally diverse. Throughout the history of Africa, Africans have had their own architectural traditions. In some cases, broader styles can be identified, such as the Sudano-Sahelian architecture of West Africa. One common theme in much of traditional African architecture is the use of fractal scaling: small parts of the structure tend to look similar to larger parts, such as a circular village made of circular houses.[1]

Throughout the medieval period, Aksumite architecture and influences and its monolithic tradition persisted, with its influence strongest in the early medieval (Late Aksumite) and Zagwe periods (when the churches of Lalibela were carved). Throughout the medieval period, and especially during the 10th to 12th centuries, churches were hewn out of rock throughout Ethiopia, especially during the northernmost region of Tigray, which was the heart of the Aksumite Empire. However, rock-hewn churches have been found as far south as Adadi Maryam (15th century), about 100 km south of Addis Abeba. The most famous example of Ethiopian rock-hewn architecture are the 11 monolithic churches of Lalibela, carved out of the red volcanic tuff found around the town. Though later medieval hagiographies attribute all 11 structures to the eponymous king Lalibela (the town was called Roha and Adefa before his reign), new evidence indicates that they may have been built separately over a period of a few centuries, with only a few of the more recent churches having been built under his reign. Archaeologist and Ethiopisant David Phillipson postulates, for instance, that Bete Gebriel-Rufa’el was actually built in the very early medieval period, some time between 600 and 800 AD, originally as a fortress but was later turned into a church.

After 1945, Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew extended their work on British schools into Ghana, and also designed the University of Ibadan. The reconstruction of Algiers offered more opportunities, with Sacred Heart Cathedral of Algiers, and universities by Oscar Niemeyer, Kenzo Tange, Jakob Zweifel (de) and Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. But modern architecture in this sense largely remained the preserve of European architects until the 1960s, one notable exception being Le Groupe Transvaal (af) in South Africa, who built homes inspired by Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier.

African art, the visual arts of native Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, including such media as sculpture, painting, pottery, rock art, textiles, masks, personal decoration, and jewelry. For more general explorations of media, see individual media articles (e.

g., painting, sculpture, pottery, and textile). For a discussion of the characteristics, functions, and forms…

Later houses of the Xhosa tend toward a consistent form—the rondavel, or cylindrical, single-cell house with a conical thatched roof. This type is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. Variants in the region include a low plinth or curb supporting a domed roof (some Swazi and Zulu), flattened domes or low-pitched cones on head-height cylinders, and high, conical roofs. Methods of construction also vary, though a common method is a wall with a ring of posts and infilling of wattles or basket weave packed and plastered with mud. Rings of posts may have packed earth infilling, and in more wooded regions walls may consist mainly of timber posts. Some southern peoples, including the Venda of northeastern South Africa and the Tswana of Botswana, build veranda houses with deep, thatched eaves supported by an outer ring of posts. The units are traditionally single-cell, undivided, and illuminated only from the doorway. Additional living space may be claimed from the exterior, with a semipublic space in the front and a private space, with hard-packed earthen floor, at the rear of the dwelling being used for food preparation, cooking, and other domestic occupations. Both spaces are bounded by a low wall. In many areas houses are dispersed; in others the kraal, with huts ranged around the perimeter of a large cattle enclosure (as among the Ila of Zambia), serves a defensive function against raiders and predators. In Namibia the kraal of the Ambo (Ovambo) people had an outer concentric ring leading to cattle pens, an inner fenced meeting place, and subdivisions for wives’, visitors’, and headman’s quarters.

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Lunda dwellings displaying the Square and the Cone On Ground type of African Vernacular Architecture

Nok culture artifacts have been dated as far back as 790 BCE, located at the Jos Plateau in Nigeria, between the Niger River and Benue River. From the excavation of the Nok settlement in Samun Dikiya, there was the tendency to build on peaks. Nok settlements have not been extensively excavated.[8] Sao civilization sites of walled city settlements in the Lake Chad region (centered by the Chari River). Oldest site to date found at Zilum, Chad goes back to at least the first millennium.

Thatch-covered conical roofs of cylindrical houses in a Matakam compound, Cameroon.Rene Gardi

Nyanza was the royal capital of Rwanda. The king’s residence, the Ibwami, was built on a hill. Surrounding hills were occupied by permanent or temporary dwellings. These dwellings were round huts surrounded by big yards and tall hedges to separate compounds. The Rugo, the royal compound, was made of circular reed fences around thatched houses. The houses were carpeted with mats and had a clay hearth in the center for the king, his wife, and entourage. The royal house was close to 200-100 yards. It looked like a huge maze of connected huts and granaries. It had one entrance that lead to a large public square called the karubanda.[25]

The architectural forms of Great Zimbabwe, however, are atypical of many African architectural styles. The site has a massive defensive wall and, included in the elliptical building, a conical tower of unknown purpose. It is also monumental in scale, having functioned as a royal citadel, and it has become a national symbol. While some of these features can be found in other examples of African building, they are rare, and the emphasis on Zimbabwe has overshadowed the great diversity of materials, forms, purposes, and uses characteristic of architecture elsewhere in Africa.

British architect David Adjaye has revealed designs for a new cathedral in Ghanaian capital Accra, which will host a 5,000-seat auditorium beneath a dramatic concave roof. More

The country’s diverse geography and the land’s long history marked by successive waves of settlers and military encroachments are all reflected in Morocco’s architecture.

In Southern Africa, the Zulu, the Swazi, and, in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, the Nguni construct frame domes, using concentric hoops. Others make a ring of poles inserted into the ground and brought together in a crest, either as a continuous curve (early Xhosa) or to a point (Sotho). These structures are expertly thatched; the Zulu domes, or indlu, have finely detailed entrances. Some Nguni types have layers of mats beneath for insulation, the covering thatch being brought to a decorative finial and the whole held down with a grass rope net to withstand strong winds.

The living spaces of this seaside house in Cape Town are lined with sliding glass walls that can be pulled aside to connect the interiors with a series of external decks, patios and balconies overlooking the ocean. More

123456Older page » Africa VeloMed plastic mesh helps volunteers transport seven times as many medicine boxes

1 Early architecture 1.1 North Africa 1.1.1 Egypt 1.1.2 Maghreban Architecture 1.1.3 Morocco 1.1.4 Nubia 1.2 Horn of Africa 1.2.1 Aksumite 1.3 West Africa 1.3.1 Nok 1.3.2 Gobarau Minaret 1.3.3 Tichitt Walata 2 Medieval Architecture 2.

1 North Africa 2.2 Horn of Africa 2.2.1 Somalia 2.2.2 Aksumite 2.3 West Africa 2.3.1 Ghana 2.3.2 Kanem-Bornu 2.3.3 Hausa Kingdoms 2.3.4 Benin 2.3.5 Ashanti 2.3.6 Yoruba 2.4 East Africa 2.4.1 Burundi 2.

4.2 Rwanda 2.4.3 Kitara and Bunyoro 2.4.4 Buganda 2.4.5 Nubia (Christian and Islamic) 2.4.6 Swahili States 2.5 Central Africa 2.5.1 Kongo 2.5.2 Kuba 2.5.3 Luba 2.5.4 Lunda 2.5.5 Eastern Lunda 2.5.6 Maravi 2.

6 Southern Africa 2.6.1 Afrikaner 2.6.2 Shona 2.6.3 Sotho-Tswana 2.6.4 Zulu and Nguni 2.6.5 Madagascar 2.6.6 Namibia 3 Modern architecture 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Amy Frearson | 8 March 2018 | Leave a comment David Adjaye unveils plans for National Cathedral of Ghana in Accra

The effect of modern architecture began to be felt in the 1920s and 1930s. Le Corbusier designed several unbuilt schemes for Algeria, including ones for Nemours and for the reconstruction of Algiers. Elsewhere, Steffen Ahrends was active in South Africa, and Ernst May in Nairobi and Mombasa.

In ancient Somalia, pyramidical structures known in Somali as taalo were a popular burial style with hundreds of these drystone monuments scattered around the country today. Houses were built of dressed stone similar to the ones in Ancient Egypt,[14] and there are examples of courtyards and large stone walls such as the Wargaade Wall enclosing settlements.

The Luba tended to cluster in small villages, with rectangular houses facing a single street. Kilolo, patrilineal chieftains, headed local village government, under the protection of the king. Cultural life centered around the kitenta, the royal compound, which later came to be a permanent capital. The kitenta drew artists, poets, musicians and craftsmen, spurred by royal and court patronage.

The zimbabwes (“stone houses”) built in the 17th and 18th centuries by the Rozwi kings of southern Central Africa were royal kraals, an example being the citadel of Chief Changamire at Khami, Zimbabwe. Ruins at Regina, Nalatali, and Dhlodhlo (also in Zimbabwe) all display fine mortarless stonemasonry worked with chevron patterns and banded colours. Many African palaces were larger and often better-crafted versions of the traditional dwelling type, raised on hillocks or plinths. Such were the palaces of the kabaka (king) of the kingdom of Buganda, including the great barnlike thatched dome with an open reception veranda at Mengo, near present-day Kampala, Uganda. Other palaces were royal compounds, such as that of the fon (chief) of Bafut, Cameroon, which within a high fenced enclosure contained separate quarters for the older and younger wives, dormitories for the adolescent sons, houses for retainers, stores, meeting places, a shrine house and a medicine house, burial structures for former chiefs, and structures for secret societies.

Similar houses are constructed in the East African lakes region, where the form probably originated. Houses of considerable size are built by some Luo (near Lake Victoria) and Kuria (Tanzania) people, the former making extensive use of papyrus reeds from lake borders, using the thicker stems structurally and the leaves for thatching material. Luo homesteads are frequently ringed with hedges within which cattle are penned; fields extend beyond for the growing of cereals. Most of these Central African peoples construct granaries, often basket-shaped and basket-woven, raised on stilts to keep rodents away and placed beneath a thatched roof to keep them dry. Veranda houses are also built, and secondary thatched roof crests, which permit ventilation, are not uncommon.

Dogon architectureDogon cliff village on the Bandiagara escarpment, Mali.Victor EnglebertDogon sacred siteDogon sacred site streaked with millet-porridge offerings.Rene Gardi

The Islamic conquest of North Africa saw Islamic architecture develop in the region, including such famous structures as the Great Mosque of Kairouan or the Cairo Citadel.

Most structures, however, like palaces, villas, commoner’s houses, and other churches and monasteries, were built of alternating layers of stone and wood. The protruding wooden support beams in these structures have been named “monkey heads” and are a staple of Aksumite architecture and a mark of Aksumite influence in later structures. Some examples of this style had whitewashed exteriors and/or interiors, such as the medieval 12th-century monastery of Yemrehanna Krestos near Lalibela, built during the Zagwe dynasty in Aksumite style. Contemporary houses were one-room stone structures or two-storey square houses or roundhouses of sandstone with basalt foundations. Villas were generally two to four stories tall and built on sprawling rectangular plans (cf. Dungur ruins). A good example of still-standing Aksumite architecture is the monastery of Debre Damo from the 6th century.

A number of new cities were built following the end of colonialism, while others were greatly expanded. Perhaps the best known example is that of Abidjan, where the majority of buildings were still designed by high-profile non-African architects. In Yamoussoukro, the Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussoukro is an example of a desire for monumentality in these new cities, but Arch 22 in the old Gambian capital of Banjul displays the same bravado.

A museum in coastal South African city Durban has been named best new building in Africa, in the continent’s inaugural architecture awards. More

Mbanza Congo was the capital of the Kingdom of Kongo with a population of more than 30,000. It sat on a cliff with river running below through a forested valley. The King’s dwelling was described as a mile and half enclosure with walled pathways, courtyard, gardens, decorated huts, and palisades. An early explorer described it looking a Cretan labyrinth.[31]

HKS Architects and Engineers for Overseas Development have built a maternity unit in Uganda, using local materials, skills and technology to create a sustainable facility. More

The rise of kingdoms in the West African coastal region produced architecture which drew on indigenous traditions, utilizing wood. The famed Benin City, destroyed by the Punitive Expedition, was a large complex of homes in coursed mud, with hipped roofs of shingles or palm leaves. The Palace had a sequence of ceremonial rooms, and was decorated with brass plaques. The Walls of Benin City are collectively the world’s largest man-made structure.[20] Fred Pearce wrote in New Scientist:

Thousands of tombs were left by Berbers that were pre-Christian in origin and whose architecture was unique to north-west Africa. The most famous was Tomb of the Christian Woman in western Algeria. This structure contains column domed and spiraling pathways that lead to a single chamber.[2]

Architecture, the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends.

Although these two ends may be distinguished, they cannot be separated,…

Of the buildings of the continent south of the Sahara, the ruins of Great Zimbabwe are perhaps the best known. This complex of stone enclosures, particularly those popularly termed the elliptical building and the acropolis, was built on sites established as early as the 3rd century ce. The first Shona phase of building was probably begun six centuries later and continued until the 15th century, when, under the Mwene Matapa, or “Ravager of the Lands,” Zimbabwe reached its peak.

Kanem-Bornu’s capital city Birni N’Gazargamu, may have had a population of 200,000. It had four mosque which could hold up to 12,000 worshippers. It was surrounded by a 25-foot (7.6 m) wall and more than 1-mile (1.6 km) in circumference. Many large streets extended from the esplanade and connected to 660 roads. The main building and structure were built with red brick. Other buildings were built with straw and adobe.[18]

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To the south of the savanna is a thinly populated strip, possibly depleted by the slave trade, beyond which lie the rainforests. These regions, especially in Nigeria, are among the most densely populated parts of sub-Saharan Africa, and they have had contact with European traders since the 16th century. The rectangular-plan houses of the Akan peoples, including those of the Asante in Ghana, date to a period before the 16th century, but they may have replaced an earlier savanna form. Until the 20th century, Asante houses were constructed primarily of pole frames with mud infilling. Such houses were finely decorated, in mud molded over grass armature, with fluid motifs. In the early 21st century, rural Asante houses were often constructed of “swish,” or pisé de terre (earth rammed into a wooden formwork), raised in lifts. The pitched or hipped roof is covered in thatch or, more frequently, with corrugated iron. Though the materials have changed, the basic form remains in the village compounds: four independently constructed rectangular-plan structures forming the sides of a courtyard. Yoruba compounds in Nigeria are somewhat similar, but the four sides are often under one continuous roof. Rain is collected from the roofs, and the plan is therefore often compared to the Roman impluvium, or cistern, house plan. Farther south in Nigeria the Igbo and related peoples traditionally built rectangular houses, often with open fronts facing a courtyard and surrounded by enclosing mud walls. Similar rectangular buildings with thatched hipped roofs are used by other rainforest peoples, including some groups of the Fon in Benin and the Baule and Dan of Côte d’Ivoire. But in regions where widely dispersed peoples, such as the Senufo of Côte d’Ivoire, border the savanna, cylinder-and-cone houses with deep thatched eaves are common.

The Yoruba surrounded their settlements with massive mud walls. Their buildings had a similar plan to the Ashanti shrines, but with verandahs around the court.[citation needed] The walls were of puddled mud and palm oil. The most famous of the Yoruba fortifications and the second largest wall edifice in Africa is Sungbo’s Eredo, a structure that was built in honour of a traditional oloye by the name of Bilikisu Sungbo in the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries.[citation needed] It is made up of sprawling mud walls and the valleys that surrounded the town of Ijebu-Ode in Ogun State. Sungbo’s Eredo is the largest pre-colonial monument in Africa, larger than the Great Pyramids or Great Zimbabwe.

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During the early modern period, the absorption of new diverse influences such as Baroque, Arab, Turkish and Gujarati Indian style began with the arrival of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Portuguese soldiers had initially come in the mid-16th century as allies to aid Ethiopia in its fight against Adal, and later Jesuits came hoping to convert the country. Some Turkish influence may have entered the country during the late 16th century during its war with the Ottoman Empire (see Habesh), which resulted in an increased building of fortresses and castles. Ethiopia, naturally hard to defensible because of its numerous ambas or flat-topped mountains and rugged terrain, yielded little tactical use from the structures in contrast to their advantages in the flat terrain of Europe and other areas, and so had until this point little developed the tradition. Castles were built especially beginning with the reign of Sarsa Dengel around the Lake Tana region, and subsequent Emperors maintained the tradition, eventually resulting in the creation of the Fasil Ghebbi (royal enclosure of castles) in the newly founded capital (1635), Gondar. Emperor Susenyos (r.1606-1632) converted to Catholicism in 1622 and attempted to make it the state religion, declaring it as such from 1624 until his abdication; during this time, he employed Arab, Gujarati (brought by the Jesuits), and Jesuit masons and their styles, as well as local masons, some of whom were Beta Israel. With the reign of his son Fasilides, most of these foreigners were expelled, although some of their architectural styles were absorbed into the prevailing Ethiopian architectural style. This style of the Gondarine dynasty would persist throughout the 17th and 18th centuries especially and also influenced modern 19th-century styles and later.

The Southeast Asian origins of the first settlers of Madagascar are reflected in the island’s architecture, typified by rectangular dwellings topped with a peaked roof and often built on short stilts. The more East African Coastal dwellings are generally made of plant materials, while those of the central highlands tend to be constructed in cob or brick. The introduction of brick-making in the 19th century by European missionaries led to the emergence of a distinctly Malagasy architectural style that blends the norms of traditional wooden aristocratic homes with European details.[40]

Closer to the coast of western Africa, some peoples build houses raised on stilts. Most notable are those built in the lakeside village of Ganvié in Benin. The buildings are constructed of mangrove poles, a material also used by coastal Swahili-speaking people in Kenya. In some coastal regions, such as that occupied by the Duala in Cameroon, houses are constructed of bamboo, though they are mud-plastered. Bamboo—which grows to heights of more than 49 feet (15 metres) in Angola, the Republic of the Congo, and parts of Central Africa—is used by many peoples as a building material. Its straight stalks, used as screen walls, are lashed with thin wood strips to produce crisp rectangular houses with peaked thatched roofs, as among the Nyakyusa of Tanzania. Bamboo construction reached its apogee in the tall houses of the Bamileke and other peoples of western Cameroon, who constructed steep prefabricated pyramidal roofs raised on platforms with verandas; the whole structure frequently reached 33 feet (10 metres) or more, with male and female ancestor figures often flanking the doors. Tall conical houses, made of bamboo poles joined at the crest and then leaf-thatched, were built by the Ngelima and the Panga of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

More extensive was the great palace of the oba of Benin City, Nigeria. In the 16th and 17th centuries it was as large as a European town, with many courts surrounded by galleried buildings, their pillars encased in bronze plaques. Roofs were shingled, and there were numerous high towers topped with bronze birds. Benin City was burned by the British in 1897. The Yoruba of western Nigeria are also an urban people. Their towns traditionally have as their centre the afin (palace) of the oba, from which radiate broad roads dividing the town into quarters, each with its compound of a subordinate chief. Some afins in the precolonial era were of great size, encompassing much of the surrounding bush; the afin of Oyo, the capital of the Oyo empire (17th and 18th centuries), was reported to cover 640 acres (260 hectares). The palace buildings were substantially built, and the open verandas were supported by carved caryatid pillars. Yoruba towns still have palaces; though the architecture is often Westernized, traditional courtyards, recreation grounds, and high surrounding walls persist.

The important Hausa Kingdoms city state Kano, was surrounded by a wall of reinforced ramparts of stone and bricks. Kano contained a citadel near which the royal class resided. Individual residence was separated by earthen wall. The higher the status of the resident the more elaborate the wall. The entranceway was mazelike to seclude women. Inside near the entrance were the abode of unmarried women. Further down were slave quarters.[19]

Moroccan architecture dates from 110 BCE with the Berber’s massive pisé (mud brick) buildings. The architecture has been influenced by Islamization during the Idrisid dynasty, Moorish exiles from Spain, and also by France who occupied Morocco in 1912.

Such exceptions apart, the overwhelming majority of Africa’s thousands of peoples in rural areas build in grasses, wood, and clay. Because of the impermanence of many of these materials, existing buildings, though based on forms many centuries old, are of relatively recent date. Where vegetation is largely confined to thin grazing cover, peoples are often nomadic, using tents of animal skins and woven hair for shelter. In the veld and less-forested areas, grasses are used as building material as well, being employed widely for thatch and mat roof coverings. Hardwoods in forest regions are used for building, as are bamboo and raffia palm. Earth and clay are also major building resources. Characteristic soils of Africa include semidesert chestnut earths and laterites (reddish residuals of rock decay), which are often low in fertility but easily compacted. Earth-sheltered houses are made by the Iraqw of Tanzania, and a number of peoples in Mali and Burkina Faso have partly sunken dwellings.

“ They extend for some 16,000 kilometres in all, in a mosaic of more than 500 interconnected settlement boundaries. They cover 6500 square kilometres and were all dug by the Edo people. In all, they are four times longer than the Great Wall of China, and consumed a hundred times more material than the Great Pyramid of Cheops.

They took an estimated 150 million hours of digging to construct, and are perhaps the largest single archaeological phenomenon on the planet.[21] ” Ashanti[edit]

C-Group culture was related to Kerma.[4] Kerma was settled around 2400 BC. It was a walled city containing religious building, large circular dwelling, a palace, and well laid out roads. On the East side of the city, funerary temple and chapel were laid out. It supported a population of 2,000. One of its most enduring structures was the Deffufa, a mudbrick temple ceremonies were performed on top. Between 1500-1085 BC, Egyptian conquest and domination of Nubia was achieved. This conquest brought about the Napatan Phase of Nubian history, the birth of the Kingdom of Kush. Kush was immensely influenced by Egypt and eventually conquered Egypt. During this phase, we see the building of numerous pyramids and temples. Gebel Barkal in the town of Napata was a very significant site. Kushite pharaohs received legitimacy. Thirteen temples have been excavated and two palaces in Napata. Napata has yet to be fully excavated. Nubian pyramids were constructed on three major sites El Kurru, Nuri, and Meroe. Sudan has more pyramids than Egypt. Sudan contains 223 pyramids. They were smaller than Egyptian pyramids. Nubian pyramids were for Kings and Queens. The general construction of the Nubian pyramids consisted of steep walls, a chapel facing East, stairway facing East, and a chamber access via the stairway.[5][6] The Meroe site has the most pyramids and is considered the largest archaeological site in the world. Around AD 350 the area was invaded by the Kingdom of Aksum and the kingdom collapsed.[7]

Brown brick facades of Promontorio’s tower in the Angolan town of Lubango recall the tones of traditional African rammed-earth buildings. More

Amy Frearson | 6 April 2018 | Leave a comment SCAU to design stadium for Africa Nations Cup in Ivory Coast

Great Zimbabwe is the largest medieval city in sub-Saharan Africa.[citation needed] Great Zimbabwe was constructed and expanded for more than 300 years in a local style that eschewed rectilinearity for flowing curves. Neither the first nor the last of some 300 similar complexes located on the Zimbabwean plateau, Great Zimbabwe is set apart by the terrific scale of its structure. Its most formidable edifice, commonly referred to as the Great Enclosure, has dressed stone walls as high as 36 feet (11 m) extending approximately 820 feet (250 m),[36] making it the largest ancient structure south of the Sahara. Houses within the enclosure were circular and constructed of wattle and daub, with conical thatched roofs.

Cape Dutch architecture is a traditional Afrikaner architecture and is one of the most distinctive type of settler architecture in the world.[citation needed] It developed during the century and a half that the Cape was a Dutch colony. Even by the end of the period, early 19th-century, the colony was inhabited by fewer than fifty thousand people, spread over an area roughly the size of the United Kingdom. Despite their small number the Cape Dutch style was of an amazing consistency, clearly related to rural architecture in northwestern Europe, but equally clearly with its own unmistakable African character and features.[35]

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The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali, first built in the 13th century and reconstructed in 1906–1909, is the largest clay building in the world

Afrofuturism has become the buzzword for the fast-growing creative scene across Africa. Here are 10 figures that are championing the movement. More

The Great Mosque of Kairouan, also called Mosque of Uqba, is the oldest mosque in North Africa (7th to 9th centuries), Kairouan, Tunisia

In the 19th century the earth-and-stone palace of the Asantehene (king) of the Asante empire at the capital city of Kumasi covered some five acres (two hectares). It had many courtyards with verandas and open screens and more than 60 rooms with steep thatched roofs. The exterior walls of the palace were covered with rich embellishments in raised clay, patterns that may be related to Islamic calligraphy. Shrine houses were also constructed. Little of the palace survived the Asante wars and a punitive expedition by the British in 1874.

The characteristic settlement form in western Africa is the compound, a cluster of units linked by walls. Many compounds are circular in plan, but others, conditioned sometimes by the uneven terrain, are more complex. Earthen wall and floor surfaces are plastered smooth and dried to a rocklike hardness. These surfaces are often decorated with coloured clays (as are the homes of the Bobo in Burkina Faso and the Nankani in Ghana) and, in some instances, sculpted with ancestral motifs (such as the Kassena do in Burkina Faso). Flat roofs with parapets are also built, sometimes in the same compound, supported either independently by a log frame of forked posts and cross members or by joists inserted into the clay walls; hollowed half-log gargoyles throw off water during seasonal rains. Dwelling huts, granaries and other stores, and pens for goats and fowl are built within the same compound.

Tichitt Walata is the oldest surviving collection of archaeological settlements in West Africa and the oldest of all stone base settlement south of the Sahara. It was built by the Soninke people and is thought to be the precursor of the Ghana empire.[9] It was settled by agropastoral people around 2000 BCE – 300 BCE which makes it almost 1000 years older than previously thought.[10] One finds well laid out streets and fortified compounds all made out of skilled stone masonry. In all, there were 500 settlements.[11][12]

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In western Uganda, there are numerous earthworks near the Katonga River. These earthworks have been affiliated with the Empire of Kitara. The most famous, Bigo Bya Mugenyi, is about four square miles. The earthwork ditch was dug by cutting through solid bedrock and earth, about 200,000 cubic metres. It was about 12 feet (3.7 m) high. It is not certain whether its function was for defense or pastoral use. Little is known about the Ugandan earthworks.[26]

At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king’s section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer.[16] The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting.[17]

Raffia palm is also used by the Bamileke and the neighbouring Bafut and is an important material among the Kongo of Angola and the Bushongo of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The most impressive of these structures are the rectangular, pitched-roofed meeting halls of the Mangbetu of Congo; their houses are of the cylinder-and-cone type, mud-plastered and geometrically decorated. Large meeting houses are found in Nigeria among the Yakö and other peoples. On special occasions pole-frame shelters are constructed with monopitch roofs loosely covered with grass or palm fronds. Awnings are also used, and among the Asante immense umbrellas shade dignitaries and members of royal families.

India Block | 23 August 2018 | Leave a comment Manuel Herz Architects plans S-shaped extension to Senegalese hospital

Khami was the capital of the Torwa State and the successor of Great Zimbabwe. The techniques of Great Zimbabwe were further refined and developed. Elaborate walls were constructed by connecting carefully cut stones forming terraced hills.[37]

Farther south, increased trade (namely with Arab merchants) and the development of ports saw the birth of Swahili architecture. Developed from an outgrowth of indigenous Bantu settlements,[30] one of the earliest examples is the Palace of Husuni Kubwa lying west of Kilwa, built about 1245. As with many other early Swahili buildings, coral rag was the main construction material, and even the roof was constructed by attaching coral to timbers. Contrastingly, the palace at Kilwa Kisiwani was a two-story tower, in a walled enclosure. Other notable structures from the period include the pillar tombs of Malindi and Mnarani in Kenya and elsewhere, originally made of coral rag, and later from stone. Later examples include Zanzibar’s Stone Town, with its famous carved doors and Great Mosque of Kilwa.

Bete Medhane Alem, Lalibela, the largest monolithic church in the world

Somali architecture is a rich and diverse tradition of engineering and designing multiple different construction types such as masonry, castles, citadels, fortresses, mosques, temples, aqueducts, lighthouses, towers and tombs during the ancient, medieval and early modern periods in Somalia. It also encompasses the fusion of Somalo-Islamic architecture with Western designs in modern times.

Nubian Architecture is one of the most ancient in the world. The earliest style of Nubian architecture include the speos, structures carved out of solid rock, an A-Group (3700-3250 BCE) achievement. Egyptians made extensive use of the process at Speos Artemidos and Abu Simbel.[3] A-Group eventually led to C-Group. C-Group began with light, supple materials, animal skins, and wattle and daub. Later larger more structures of mudbricks became the norm.

Monumental temple architecture is rare in Africa, for in animist religions spirits may reside in trees, carved figures, or small, simple shrines. Shrine rooms containing votive objects and dedicated to spirits or ancestors are common, however; like the shrine house of the Asante, with its rooms for an orchestra and the officiating priest, many such houses are similar to the dwelling compound. A more notable structure is the elaborate mbari house of the Owerri Igbo of Nigeria. A large open-sided shelter, square in plan, it houses many life-size painted figures sculpted in mud and intended to placate the figure of Ala, the earth goddess, who is supported by deities of thunder and water. The remaining sculptures—often witty—are of craftsmen, officials, Europeans, animals, and imaginary beasts. Because the process of building is regarded as a sacred act, mbari houses, which once took years to build, were left to decay, and new ones were constructed rather than old ones maintained. Contemporary mbari structures are formed from cement, and the symbolism of decay and renewal has therefore been lost.

Engaruka is a ruined settlement on the slopes of Mount Ngorongoro in northern Tanzania. Seven stone terraced villages along the mountainside comprised the settlement. A complex structure of stone channel irrigation was used to dike, dam, and level surrounding river waters. The stone channels run along the mountainside and base. Some of these channels were several kilometers long channelling and feeding individual plots of land. The irrigation channels fed a total area of 5,000 acres (20 km2).[22][23]

Italian futurist architecture heavily influenced the designs of Asmara. Planned villages were constructed in Libya and Italian East Africa, including the new town of Tripoli, all utilising modern designs.

The Eastern Lunda dwelling of the Kacembe was described as containing fenced roads, a mile long. The enclosed walls were made of grass, 12 to 13 span in height. The enclosed roads lead to a rectangular hut opened on the west side. In the center was a wooden base with a statue on top about 3 span.[34]

Sotho–Tswana architecture represent the other stone building tradition of southern Africa, centered in the transvaal, highveld north and south of the Vaal. Numerous large stonewalled enclosures and stoned housed foundations have been found in the region.[38] The capital of the Kwena (Tswana) was a stoned wall town as large as the Eastern Lunda capital.[39]

The cattle-herding pastoralists of Southern and East Africa settle for some years in one location. The Maasai of Kenya and Tanzania construct an oblong, or sometimes square, low-domed hut some 20 feet (6 metres) long and at shoulder height from closely woven frames of thin leleshwa sticks and saplings. Arranged in a circle around the cattle enclosure, or manyatta, the frames are packed with leaves and plastered over with cattle dung, which acts as a deterrent to termites. The huts are aerodynamically designed to resist high winds, and the manyatta thicket boundary acts as a defensive barrier. A number of other tribes use a similar structure; the Barabaig of Tanzania, for example, build thornbush enclosures in the form of a figure eight, with one loop used as a kraal for the cattle and the other lined with huts with flat-roof frames.

Egypt’s achievements in architecture were varied from temples, enclosed cities, canals, and dams.

Dutch landscape architect Peter Veenstra has revealed plans to build a plant-covered bamboo sphere in Cape Town’s Luthuli Plaza, providing an extra venue for next year’s Design Indaba conference. More

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IntroductionGeneral characteristicsGeographic influencesNomads and pastoralistsSavanna kraals and compoundsForest dwellingsPalaces and shrinesInfluences of Islam and ChristianityThe 20th century

Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné and Timbuktu. The Sankore Mosque constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque of Djenné.

Other notable structures of recent years have been some of the world’s largest dams. The Aswan High Dam and Akosombo Dam hold back the world’s largest reservoirs. In recent years, there has also been renewed bridge building in many nations, while the Trans-Gabon Railway is perhaps the last of the great railways to be constructed.

Belgian photographer Julien Lanoo took these images of the National Theatre of Ghana built in Accra in the early 90s, which features smooth, white volumes elevated above the surrounding streetscape. More

The Arab and Amazigh (Berber) architecture of Egypt and North Africa has had an impact on African architecture south of the Sahara. Similarly, the states of the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea have influenced architectural types in Sudan, the Horn of Africa, and the coasts of Kenya and Tanzania, where the Muslim presence has also been strong. These influences are discussed below (see below Influences of Islam and Christianity).

Terraced hill, entranceway of Khami, capital of the Torwa State

The peaceful introduction of Islam in the early medieval era of Somalia’s history brought Islamic architectural influences from Arabia and Persia, which stimulated a shift in construction from drystone and other related materials to coral stone, sundried bricks, and the widespread use of limestone in Somali architecture. Many of the new architectural designs such as mosques were built on the ruins of older structures, a practice that would continue over and over again throughout the following centuries.[15]

Zulu Architecture was constructed with more perishable materials. Dome shaped huts typically comes to mind when one thinks of Zulu dwellings, but later on it evolved into dome over cylinder shape walls. Zulu capitals were elliptical in shape. The exterior was lined with durable wood palisade. Domed huts in rows of 6 through 8 lined the interior of exterior palisades. In the center of the capital city was the kraal, used by the king to examine his soldiers, holding cattle, or ceremonies. It was an empty circular area at the center of the capital, lined with less durable palisades compared to the exterior palisades. The entrance of the city was opposite to the highly fortified royal enclosure called the Isigodlo.

Eleanor Gibson | 2 September 2017 | 1 comment Glazed corners peel back to allow sea breezes into Malan Vorster’s Cape Town house

Little is known of ancient architecture south and west of the Sahara. Harder to date are the monoliths around the Cross River, which has geometric or human designs. The vast number of Senegambian stone circles also evidence an emerging architecture.

While many African peoples have or have had kings, not all have resided in palaces, and not all have been divine. Some peoples have no recognized chiefs or leaders at all. Religion, however, plays an essential part in the life of all African societies. Among some, such as the Fali of Cameroon or the Nankani of Burkina Faso, spiritual symbolism informs every part of their dwelling types. Among the most-studied peoples in this respect are the Dogon who live on the rockfall of the Bandiagara escarpment in Mali. It has long been believed that the Dogon perceive each dwelling compound anthropomorphically as a man on his side in the act of procreation. The man’s head is associated with the hearth, the stores with his arms, the stables with his legs, the central workroom with his belly, and the grinding stones with his genitalia. From the individual parts of the house to the entire village plan, each element has a religiously symbolic association, and totemic sanctuaries with markedly zoomorphic form are built and dedicated to the ancestors of the living. It should be noted, however, that the scholarship of Marcel Griaule and his followers, who documented the complex cosmogony expressed in such plans, has been open to debate and revision. Among the structures significant to the Dogon are the rounded sanctuaries dedicated to the ancestors, covered with rectilinear checkerboard designs; granaries with wooden doors and locks carved with multiple human figures; and the men’s meeting house, or togu na, a low structure with a stacked millet roof and structural posts.

Cylindrical houses are built by the majority of peoples in the savanna and semidesert regions of Sudan and western Africa. With less wood available, these are often constructed of mud in a coil pottery technique. It is customary to lay the mud spirally in “lifts” of approximately half a metre, allowing each lift to dry before adding the next. The Musgum of northern Cameroon once created spectacular homes from compressed sun-dried mud, although their tall conical dwellings with geometric raised patterns are no longer made today. The Batammaliba of Togo and Benin build elaborate two-story dwellings that are integrally connected with Batammaliba cosmogony and social order.

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The capital of Buganda constantly changed from hill to hill, with each change of Kabaka. In the late 19th century, a permanent Kibuga of Buganda was established at Mengo Hill. The capital was divided into quarters corresponding to provinces. Each chief built a dwelling corresponding to provinces. Each chief built a dwelling for wife, slaves, dependents, and visitors. The city was a mile and half wide. Large plots of land were available for planting bananas and fruits. Roads were wide and well maintained.[27]

The Christianization of Nubia began in the 6th century. Its most representative architecture are churches. They are based on Byzantine basilicas. The structures are relatively small and made of mud bricks. Vernacular architecture of the Christian period is scarce. Architecture of Soba is the only that has been excavated. Structures are made of sun dried bricks, same as today, except for an arch. During the Fatimid phase of Islam, Nubia became Arabized. Its most import mosque was the mosque of Derr.[28][29]

Natasha Levy | 13 June 2018 | Leave a comment 10 architects and designers that are championing afrofuturism

The success of the movie Black Panther and its afrofuturist aesthetic has put Africa in the spotlight as a growing force in design, technology and fashion, according to designers from the continent. More

Experimental designs have also appeared, most notably the Eastgate Centre in Zimbabwe. With an advanced form of natural air-conditioning, this building was designed to respond precisely to Harare’s climate and needs, rather than import less suitable designs. Neo-vernacular architecture continues, for instance with the Great Mosque of Nioro or New Gourna.

Egyptian art and architecture, the ancient architectural monuments, sculptures, paintings, and decorative crafts produced mainly during the dynastic periods of the first three millennia bce in the Nile valley regions of Egypt and Nubia.

The course of art in Egypt paralleled to a large extent the country’s political history, but…

The revival of interest in traditional styles can be traced to Cairo in the early 19th century. This had spread to Algiers and Morocco by the early 20th century, from which time colonial buildings across the continent began to pastiche elements of traditional African architecture, the Jamia Mosque in Nairobi being a typical example. In some cases, architects attempted to mix local and European styles, such as at Bagamoyo.

Dwellings of approximately rectangular plan, though often with curved and molded corners, are also found among the cylindrical units, and some peoples, such as the Lobi of Côte d’Ivoire, build compounds with straight walls. Throughout the western savanna region the trend has been toward rectangular-plan houses, largely because of Islamic influence from the north (see below Influences of Islam and Christianity) and contact with rainforest peoples from the south.

In this exclusive movie produced by Dezeen, Serpentine Pavilion architect Diébédo Francis Kéré reveals how building a school for his home village in Burkina Faso was the starting point for his career. More

This article addresses the range of architectural styles in sub-Saharan Africa. For a technical exploration of architecture as an art and as a technique, see architecture. For a discussion of the visual art of Africa, see African art. For a discussion of ancient Egyptian architecture, see Egyptian art and architecture. For a treatment of the later architecture of Egypt and other parts of North Africa, which were heavily influenced by Islam, see Islamic arts: Visual arts.

African architecture, the architecture of Africa, particularly of sub-Saharan Africa. In North Africa, where Islam and Christianity had a significant influence, architecture predominates among the visual arts. Included here are the magnificent mosques built of mud in Djenné and Mopti in Mali, the rock-hewn churches of Ethiopia, and the Islamic monuments of coastal eastern Africa. Discussions of architecture in sub-Saharan Africa focus chiefly on housing in villages, rural mosques, and the mélange of colonial and modern influences that characterize urban areas.

India Block | 17 October 2017 | Leave a comment Durban heritage museum scoops top prize in inaugural Africa Architecture Awards

Around 1000 AD, cob (tabya) first appears in the Maghreb and al-Andalus.[13]

Eleanor Gibson | 29 September 2017 | 1 comment Thomas Heatherwick: “There was a real worry about whether we could get people to come inside”

Amy Frearson | 15 September 2017 | 30 comments Ghana’s “UFO-like” National Theatre photographed by Julien Lanoo

The conical tower inside the Great Enclosure in Great Zimbabwe, a medieval city built by a prosperous culture

Khauxa!nas was a wall in southeastern Namibia built by the Oorlam. Its perimeter was 700 m and 2 metres in height. It was built with stone slabs and displays features of both the Zimbabwean and Transvaal Free State style of stone construction.[41]

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India Block | 28 December 2017 | 7 comments SAOTA completes “challenging” restoration of Gilbert Colyn’s modernist Cape Town home

Burundi never had a fixed capital. The closest thing was a royal hill. When the king moved, the location became the capital called the insago. The compound itself was enclosed inside a high fence. The compound had two entrance. One was for herders and herds. The other was to the royal palace. This palace was surrounded by a fence. The royal palace had three royal courtyards. Each serve a particular function one for herders, a sanctuary, kitchen and granary.[24]

Aksumite Architecture flourished in the region from the 4th century BC onward, persisting even after the transition of the Aksumite dynasty to the Zagwe in the 12th century, as attested by the numerous Aksumite influences in and around the medieval churches of Lalibela. Stelae (hawilts) and later entire churches were carved out of single blocks of rock, emulated later at Lalibela and throughout Tigray. Other monumental structures include massive underground tombs often located beneath stelae. The stelae is the single largest monolithic structure ever erected (or attempted to be erected). Other well-known structures employing the use of monoliths include tombs such as the Tomb of the False Door, and the tombs of Kaleb and Gebre Mesqel in Axum.

The Great Pyramids of Giza are regarded as one of the greatest architectural feats of all times and are one of Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Pastoral nomads follow defined routes, reducing the risk of overgrazing and enabling them to contact other nomadic groups. Camel-herding nomads such as the Kabābīsh of central Sudan use the traditional Bedouin tent, which consists of a rectangular membrane of strips of woven camel hair that are attached to webbing straps and secured with guys over rectangles of poles. A central row of four poles supporting curved ridge pieces reduces the possibility of damage to the tent. In Niger the Tuareg use a tent of superficially similar form, though the strips are made of goat skins sewn together. As many as 40 skins are required to complete each tent membrane. Farther south, Tuareg subgroups employ a structure similar to that used by many camel-herding nomads from as far away as Djibouti. Common to these people is the use of the pole frame in the form of a humped dome over which woven mats of grass or palm fronds are secured. Palm leaves are split by the Oromo of Somalia; Oromo women then weave strips of coloured cloth into the mat, with the patterned side laid over the frame in order to be visible within the tent, while on the outside the shaggy, rough fibres are exposed.

Amy Frearson | 6 April 2018 | Leave a comment Afrofuturism is “creating a different narrative for Africa” say creatives

White mashrabiya-style screens cover these apartments in Mombasa, Kenya, which Nairobi-based Urko Sanchez Architects designed to provide residents with privacy but also views out to sea. More

African architecture reflects the interaction of environmental factors—such as natural resources, climate, and vegetation—with the economies and population densities of the continent’s various regions. As stone is the most durable of building materials, some ancient stone structures survive, while other materials have succumbed to rain, rot, or termites. Stone-walled kraals from early Sotho and Tswana settlements (South Africa and Botswana) and stone-lined pit circles with sunken kraals for pygmy cattle (Zimbabwe) have been the subject of archaeological study. Stone-corbeled shelters and circular huts with thatched roofs were also recorded in the 20th century among the southern Sotho. Rectangular and circular stone farmhouses, unusual in being two stories, have been built by the Tigre of Eritrea and Sudan for centuries, while in Niger some Tuareg build square houses in stone.

African architecture uses a wide range of materials. One finds structures in thatch, stick/wood, mud, mudbrick, rammed earth, and stone, with the preference for materials varying by region: North Africa for stone and rammed earth, Horn of Africa for drystone and mortar, West Africa for mud/adobe, Central Africa for thatch/wood and more perishable materials, Southeast and Southern Africa for stone and thatch/wood.

Gobarau is believed to have been completed during the reign of Muhammadu Korau (1398-1408 AD), the first Muslim King of Katsina. Originally built as the central Mosque of Katsina town, it was later used also as a school.[citation needed] By the beginning of the 16th century, Katsina had become a very important commercial and academic center in Hausaland, and Gobarau mosque had grown into a famed institution of higher Islamic education. Gobarau continued to be Katsina’s Central mosque until the beginning of the 19th century AD.[citation needed]

Probably the most famous class of structures in all Africa, the pyramids of Egypt, remain one of the world’s greatest early architectural achievements, if limited in practical scope and originating from a purely funerary context. Egyptian architectural traditions also saw the rise of vast temple complexes and buildings.

Es Devlin to design interactive Poem Pavilion for Dubai Expo 2020 Architects and designers celebrate Dezeen Awards 2018 shortlists Elongated skylight illuminates stables in Chile by Matias Zegers Architects H&P Architects wraps perforated brick walls around Hanoi house Brick Cave Competition: win Sony’s customisable FES Watch U Five vacation homes at California’s modernist marvel The Sea Ranch

The Maravi people built bridges (uraro) of bamboo because of changing river depths. Bamboo was placed parallel to each other and tied together by bark (maruze). One end of the bridge would be tied to a tree. The bridge would curve downward.

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Djenné, ancient trading city and centre of Muslim scholarship, southern Mali. It is situated on the Bani River on floodlands between the Bani and Niger rivers, 220 miles (354 km) southwest of Timbuktu.

Djenné was founded in the 13th century near the site of Djenné-Jeno,…

In an exclusive interview with Dezeen, designer Thomas Heatherwick reveals how he overcame early fears that no one would visit the art galleries in his new Cape Town art museum. More

ArchiAfrika List of World Heritage Sites in Africa References[edit] External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Architecture of Africa. Architecture of Africa – Great Buildings Online

Alyn Griffiths | 6 September 2017 | 1 comment White latticed screens encase apartment block in Kenya by Urko Sanchez Architects

Natasha Levy | 7 March 2018 | Leave a comment Peter Veenstra to build dome of plants at Design Indaba venue in Cape Town

Swiss studio Manuel Herz Architects has unveiled plans to extend Tambacounda Hospital in Senegal, with a snaking building featuring perforated brick walls. More

Industrial design graduate Gwen Gage’s has created a plastic mesh that connect medication boxes together to allow easier delivery of malaria medicine in remote sub-Saharan African villages. More

Alyn Griffiths | 27 December 2017 | 2 comments Studio KO celebrates Yves Saint Laurent’s fashion oeuvre with Marrakech museum

By the late 19th century, most buildings reflected the fashionable European eclecticism and pastisched Mediterranean, or even Northern European, styles. Examples of colonial towns from this era survive at Saint-Louis, Grand-Bassam, Swakopmund, Cape Town, Luanda. A few buildings were pre-fabricated in Europe and shipped over for erection. This European tradition continued well into the 20th century with the construction of European-style manor houses, such as Shiwa Ng’andu in what is now Zambia, or the Boer homesteads in South Africa, and with many town buildings.

Urban-Think Tank has completed the next phase of its Empower Shack project, bringing safe low-cost housing to residents of South Africa’s informal settlements. More

The capital of the Kuba Kingdom was surrounded by a 40-inch-high (1,000 mm) fence. Inside the fence were roads, a walled royal palace, urban buildings. The palace was rectangular and in the center of the city.[32]

India Block | 3 April 2018 | Leave a comment Snøhetta and Local Studio build tribute arch to Desmond Tutu in Cape Town

Amy Frearson | 20 October 2017 | 4 comments Diébédo Francis Kéré says school that launched his career is “not a traditional African building”

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